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BIOLOGY

FALL SEMESTER EXAM REVIEW

QuestionAnswer
scientists usually begin with their work with careful observations
what should a scientist do before performing an experiment formulate a testable hypothesis
the information gathered during an experiment data
what do you call your suggested outcome of an experiment hypothesis
what are the types of measurement and their units length=meter, mass=grams, volume=liters, temp.=Celsius
your designed experiment can have how many variables tested at one time 1
what are the characteristics of the living organism all living things are cellular, need energy, grow and develop, reproduce, and respond to their environment you will have examples to recognize
what is the process of keeping the organisms internal condition constant and in balance with it's enviroment homeostasis
SAFE OR UNSAFE hair tied back SAFE
long chains of single subunits in a biomolecule polymer
the single subunits of a large biomolecule monomer
what are the 4 biomolecules (organic compounds) carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
which group of biomolecules are non-polar and therefore insoluble in water lipids
what makes water polar oxygen side is slightly negative and the hydrogen side is slightly positive
what is the difference between a solute and solvent solute is what is being dissolved and solvent is the liquid doing the dissolving
briefly describe the pH scale 7 is neutral; below 7 is considered an acid and above 7 is a base
what are the 6 elements that form the biomolecules C, H, O, N, P, S
what are the 3 catagories of carbohydrates monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
name 3 monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose
what are the 3 main functions of the carbohydrates in the living organism energy, energy storage, structural
what is the main energy source in most cells glucose for cellular respiration
most plants store their energy long term as starch
name 2 structural carbohydrates and give their function cellulose- main component of plant cell walls chitin- found in exoskeletons of arthropods
what is the most common disaccharide sucrose
polysaccharides are also known as starches
proteins are polymers of what type of monomer amino acids
what are some functions of the proteins in the living organism they are the enzymes, antibodies, structural tissue,most hormones, transport proteins know examples of these
describe the element composition of carbohydrates C, H, O, with H:O at 2:1 in ratio
describe the element composition of proteins C, H, O, N, S
describe the element composition of lipids C, H, O, P with H:O much great than 2:1
describe the element composition of nucleic acids C, H, O, N, P
what is the function of an enzyme to control the rate of the chemical reactions during metabolic activity
list the characteristics of the enzyme proteins with specific shapes, affected by heat and pH, they are biochemical catalysts, they work both inside and outside cells
what lipids are associated with cell membranes phospholipids
fats and oils are lipids that are composed of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol; what are they called triglycerides
animals store their energy long term as fats and oils
the monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides
what are the sugars of DNA and RNA deoxyribose and ribose
what are the functions of the nucleic acids store hereditary information
what best describes the shape of the DNA molecule double helix
how do we classify sterols, wax, and oils lipids
quote the 3 components of the Cell Theory 1. all life is cellular 2. all life functions by their cells 3. all cells come from preexisting cells by cell division
cells with an organized nucleus eukaryote
cells lacking an organized nucleus prokaryote
the green organelle chloroplast
what controls the substances entering and leaving the cell selectively permeable membranes; cell membrane
give me the order of cellular organization in living organisms cells > tissue > organs > organ systems > organism
name the organelles found in the nucleus nucleolus, chromosomes (DNA)
how do I calculate total magnification on a microscope objective X ocular (10X)
who named the cell and what was he looking at Hooke; cork cells
who was the first to see living cells Von Leeuwenhoek
what organelle stores food vacuole
what organelle makes ATP by cellular respiration mitochondrion
what organelle plays a role in animal cell reproduction centrioles
what organelle converts sunlight into the chemical bond energy of glucose and what process is this called chloroplast; photosynthesis
the gradual spreading of odors through out the room diffusion
the diffusion of water osmosis
what type of transport requires ATP active
what microscope part is used to control light passing through the specimen iris diaphragm (label on diagram)
where do we find chlorophyl in a plant cell chloroplasts (thylakoid membranes)
what organelle is described as " a fluid mosiac model " the cell membrane; phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
what is the difference between cilia and flagella cilia- many and shorter flagella - longer and usually fewer
write the equation for photosynthesis; both chemical and word 6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2; carbon dioxide + water > glucose + oxygen
where does glycolysis occur in the cell cytoplasm
what organelle breaks down food with the release of energy mitochondrion
what structure carries coded instructions that come from the nucleus mRNA
what organelle builds the proteins using coded instructions from the nucleus ribosome
name the organelles that produce energy mitochondrion, chloroplasts
any process not requiring oxygen anaerobic
what organelle converts the chemical bond energy from food into ATP mitochondrion during cellular respiration
name 3 organelles found in plant cells not found in animal cells cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts
name structures that carry out movement of the cell cilia, flagella
any process requiring oxygen aerobic
type of anaerobic respiration carried out by yeast forming bread alcoholic fermentation
genes are sections of chromosomes
before a cell divides it must make a copy of the DNA during S phase of interphase
main function of cell wall support and protect the plant cell
the usable form of energy for a cell ATP
what happens to the nucleus during mitosis the cell divides it's chromosomes
when replicated chromosomes are attached to each other they are called sister chromatids
4 bases of DNA thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine
the base in RNA that replaces thymine uracil
3 types of asexual reproduction budding, regeneration, binary fission
codons code for amino acids
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable osmosis
if a sample of DNA has thymine composition of 32%, what is the percentage of adenine, cytosine, and guanine adenine=32; cytosine=18%; guanine=18%
what is the location of DNA in eukaryotic cells nucleus
DNA is copied in what process replication
mRNA made from DNA is a process called transcription
after replication, the new DNA consists of one new strand and one orginal strand
if a DNA stand has the bases CCGATGCCAG it will replicate a strand with the bases GGCTACGGTC
what are the types of RNA used in protein synthesis mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
a three letter code word in mRNA is a triplet codon
a three letter code word in tRNA is a(an) anticodon
how many codons are needed to specify 5 amino acids 5
what is translation the ribosome uses information from mRNA to produce a sequence of amino acids
genes are sections of DNA (chromosomes) that contain instructions for assembling proteins
mRNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code
the signal for the start of transcription promoter
SAFE OR UNSAFE loose, long sleeves UNSAFE
SAFE OR UNSAFE backpacks and gym bags in the lab setting UNSAFE
SAFE OR UNSAFE wearing goggles during a lab involving open flame or chemical testing SAFE
SAFE OR UNSAFE eating and drinking in the lab UNSAFE
the phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes align themselves at the equator metaphase
the phase of mitosis in which the nucleus and nucleolus breakdown and disappear prophase
the phase of mitosis in which the double chromosomes migrate to opposite poles anaphase
Created by: biobob