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Genetics CC

TermDefinition
Species Organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Heredity The passing on of traits from parent to offspring by means of genes
Gene Expression The process of using the information on the gene to make a protein
Gene A unit of DNA which codes for the production of a specific protein
DNA profiling Examining DNA for a pattern or band to compare against the DNA of another person.
Coding dna That part of the chromosome which carries the infomation to make a protein
Non-coding dna That part of the chromosome which does not carry the infomation to make a protein
Genetic screening Testing for the presence of a specific gene to establish the presence or absence of that gene
Transcription The process of producing mRNA using DNA as a template.
Translation The process of making a protein using the mRNA code a template
Gamete A haploid sex cell which is capable of fusion
Fertilisation The fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote
Allele An alternative form of a gene
Homozygous Has identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous Has different alleles for a trait
Genotype The genetic make-up of an individual
Phenotype Physical appearance of an organism
Dominance One allele masks the expression of the other.
Recessive Allele whose expression is masked by dominant allele
Incomplete Dominance Neither allele masks the expression of the other.
Variation Difference between members of species or population
Mutation Change in the genetic make up
Genetic engineering Manipulation or alteration of genes
Evolution Inheritable change within a population or species in response to change in the environment by natural selection over time
Mendel’s 1st Law[Segregation] Traits are controlled by pairs of alleles which separate at gamete formation. Each gamete carries only one allele for each trait
Mendel’s 2nd Law[Ind.Assortment] During gamete formation each member of a pair of alleles may combine randomly with either of another pair
Linkage Genes located on the same chromosome
Sex Linkage Gene located on X- chromosome or on Y-chromosome
Non-nuclear Inheritance DNA apart from that found in the nucleus e.g. mitochondria that is passed on to the next generation
Created by: Confey College