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Nutrition and Digestion

nutrient substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
protein large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and is made up of amino acids; used by the body for growth and for replacement and repair of body cells
amino acid building block of protein
carbohydrate nutrient that usually is the body's main source of energy; made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
fat nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
vitamin water-soluble or fat-soluble organic nutrient needed in small quantities for growth, for preventing some diseases, and for regulating body function
mineral inorganic nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions in the body
food group group of foods--such as bread, cereal, rice, and pasta--containing the same type of nutrients
digestion the process that breaks down food into small molecules so they can be absorbed and moved into the blood to be transported throughout the body
mechanical digestion takes place when food is chewed, mixed, and churned
chemical digestion when chemical reactions occur that break down large molecules of food into smaller ones
enzyme a type of protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction in your body
peristalsis waves of muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract
chyme thin, watery liquid that moves from the stomach to the small intestine
villi finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption
mouth where food enters the body; mechanical and chemical digestion both take place here
esophagus tube that connects the mouth with the stomach; peristalsis moves food through it
stomach muscular organ where acid is added to food; chemical and mechanical digestion both take place here
small intestine skinny, but long, tube-like organ 4-7 m in length; where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
large intestine wider and shorter than small intestine; where water is absorbed out of chyme and undigested material becomes more solid
rectum end of large intestine where solid waste is stored before being released from the body
anus end of the digestive tract; where waste products leave the body
Created by: MsHollinger