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HPDP Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is the dental hygiene process of care? ADPIE A: assessment D: dental hygiene diagnosis P: planning I: Implementation E: evaluation
what is a primary service? person does not have a disease examples: fluorides, sealants, education, oral cancer screenings, tobacco cessation
what is a secondary service? patient has a problem but it is not big, try to fix and get them back to health examples: desensitizing for sensitive teeth, home fluoride, instructions to reverse early gingivitis
what is tertiary service? patient has a problem that we can't heal and doesn't take the problem away examples: scaling/root planing for periodontal disease, restorative DDS, prosthodontics
what is a normal sulcus depth? 1-3 mm
what is gingivitis? inflammation or infection of the gingival tissue in the absence of clinical attachment loss or bone loss NO BONE LOSS, REVERSIBLE
What is periodontitis? inflammation or infection that affects and destroys the supporting structures of the teeth BONE LOSS, IRREVERSIBLE
what are local factors of gingivitis or periodontitis? calculus, crowded teeth, dental appliances, tooth anatomy, overhanging restorations, food impaction or open contacts
what are systemic factors of gingivitis or periodontitis? smoking, diabetes, HIV, AIDS, immune system, hormonal imbalance, genetics
what are dysfunctional factors of gingivitis or periodontitis? trauma from occlusion, injurious habits such as toothpicks or nails, bruxism
what it the most common gingival disease? dental plaque induced gingivitis
what is the most common periodontal disease? chronic periodontitis
what is case type I periodontitis gingivitis or healthy
what is case type II periodontitis early/mild periodontitis
what is case type III periodontitis moderate periodontitis
what is case type IV periodontitis advanced/ severe periodontitis
what is case type V periodontitis refractory
what is supra gingival pellicle made of? glycoproteins in saliva
what is sub gingival pellicle made of? glycoproteins in gingival sulcus
what is the first stage of plaque development? pellicle-->plaque biofilm-->calculus
what is the significance of the pellicle? protective as an acid barrier lubrication to keep surfaces moist and prevent drying nidus for bacteria plaque colonization
what is extrinsic stain? on external surface
what is intrinsic stain? within tooth surface
what is an exogenous source for stain? caused by factors from outside the tooth
what is an endogenous source for stain? stain originates within tooth, incorporated within tooth structure, may be related to period of tooth development
examples of extrinsic stain? yellow stain, black line stain, green stain, tobacco stain, betel leaf
what is the type of extrinsic stain that you do not scale? Green stain
what are some examples of intrinsic stain? tetracycline, fluorosis, restorative, endodontic treatment
what is important about bass method? only effective method for sulcular cleaning
how does one perform bass method? 10 strokes each area, press lightly without flexing bristles, 45 degree intrasulcular position
what is important about rolling stroke method? children with healthy gingiva or sulcular technique is too difficult for patient
hoe does one perform rolling stroke method? holds toothbrush and rolls bristles down
what is important about modified stillmans method? minimize gingival trauma and massages gingival tissue
how does one perform modified stillmans method? start with bristles on top of the gingiva then you move to a 45 degree angle and vibrate until you hit the tooth then roll down
what is important about charter's method? orthodontic appliances, braces, or pontics, post perio surgery
how does one perform charter's method? brush towards incisal and occlusal edge and vibrate brush using rotary motion of handle
what is important about circular or Fones method? easy to learn for young children or elderly patients
how does one perform circular or Fones method? teeth closed and circular motion sweeping from maxillary to mandibular gingiva
what is gingiva recession? margin moves apically and root surface exposed caused by vigorous pressured brushing with abrasive dentifrice and worn brush
what is gingival clefting or Stillman's cleft? narrow groove or slit that looks like a bracket extends from crest of gingiva to the attached gingiva
what is gingival festooning or McCall's festoon? rolled, bulbous, hard, firm gingiva looks like a melted rubber tire rolled around tooth
what is embrasure type I? filled with papilla
what is embrasure type II? still a little papilla, open space with blunted papilla
what is embrasure type III? no papilla, space in between teeth
what are the two flossing techniques? spool method and loop method
how should you tell someone to floss? seesaw to get through contact, up and down motion and wrap in C-shape
What are the minerals in saliva? Calcium and phosphate
What is loss called in dental caries? Demineralization
What is gain called in dental caries? Remineralization
What is in plaque bacteria? Strep mutans and lactobacillus
What is the critical level for enamel 5.5
What are the roles of saliva? Cleansing, buffering, remineralizing Antibacterial
How does saliva cleanse? Dilutes and removes acid concentrations of plaque
How does saliva buffer? Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acids of plaque
How does saliva remineralize? Supersaturation of calcium and phosphate prevents demineralization and repairs through remineralization
What happens to a remineralized tooth? Becomes less susceptible to caries Happens before the surface layer with a. White spot lesion
What is the primary agent of a cariogenic diet? Sucrose
How long does it take the tooth to recover from a pH drop? 40 minutes
Amount of sugar is not as important as what? Frequency, form it is in, and when sugar is eaten
What is happening during incipient lesions? Demineralization is going on, surface is intact, no bacterial penetration
What is happening for an established lesion? Surface layer breaks down, clinically detectable, attack on dentin
What is the critical pH level for root caries? 6.0
What are the basic inactive components of dentifrices? Detergent, abrasives, binder, humectant, preservative, flavoring, water
What are the preventative and therapeutic benefits of dentifrices? Caries prevention, remineralization, reduction of biofilm, reduction of gingivitis/periodontitis, dentin hypersensitivity, supra gingival calculus
What are the cosmetic effects of dentifrice? Removal of extrinsic stain, reduction of malodor
What is the purpose of detergent? Lower surface tension, penetrate and loosen surface deposits, foaming action
What is an example of detergent? Sodium laurel sulfate Lauryl sulfate
What is the purpose of abrasive? Polishes cleans to produce smooth surface without damage to tooth surface
What is an example of abrasive? Calcium carbonate, phosphate salts, silica, hydrated aluminum oxide
What is the purpose of binder? Stabilizes the formula, prevents separation of ingredients during storage
What is an example of a binder? Mineral colloids, natural gums, seaweed colloids, synthetic cellulose
What is the purpose of a humectant? Retain moisture, prevent hardening when exposed to air
What is an example of a humectant? Xylitol, glycerol, sorbitol
What is the purpose of a preservative? Prevent bacterial growth, prolong shelf life
What are examples of a preservative? Alcohol, benzoates, dichlorinated phenols
What is the purpose of flavoring? Sweetener for patient acceptance, masks other ingredients
What are examples of flavorings? Essential oils such as peppermint, cinnamon, wintergreen and clove Xylitol, glycerol, and sorbitol
What are the therapeutic active components? Anti biofilm, anti gingivitis, desensitizer, oral malodor
What is an example of antibiofilm and antigingivitis agents? Triclosan, stannous fluoride, zinc citrate
What is an example of anti calculus agents? tetra potassium, tetra sodium, triclosan
what is pellicle made of? glycoproteins from the saliva and gingival sulcus fluids
what is calculus made of? 70-80% inorganic materials and trace elements such as Ca, P, Mg Na Co and F
what is materia alba made of?? bacteria, epithelial cells, leukocytes, salivary proteins and food particles
what is a de sensitizer agent? potassium nitrate, potassium citrate, potassium chloride, stannous fluoride
what is an agent to get rid of malodor? essential oils, triclosan, stannous fluoride
what size of toothpaste should you give a toddler aged 2? 1/2 pea size
what size of toothpaste should you give an older child of 4-5 pea size
what size toothpaste should you give an adult? 1/2 inch
what is an astringent? shrinks tissues
what is an anodyne? alleviate pain
what is oxygenating? cleansing
what are the functions of chemotherapeautic agents of mouthwashes? remineralization, antimicrobial, astringent, anodyne, buffering, deoderizing, oxygenating
what is the substantivity for chlorhexidine? 8-12 hours
what is important about chlorhexidine? most effective antimicrobial/ anti gingivitis agent both bactericidal and bacteriostatic
what is bactericidal? attaches to cell membrane causing lysis and death
what is bacteriostatic? interferes with cell wall transport system, doesn't kill just stops division
what are the recommended uses for chlorhexidine? preprocedural rinse, before during or after periodontal debridement, high risk for dental caries, immunocompromised individuals, post surgery for wound healing
what is chlorhexidine inactivated by? sodium lauryl surf ate when rinsing is performed immediately after brushing wait 30 minutes after brushing
what is the effect of stannous fluoride? antimicrobial effect due to run ion from stannous fluoride interfering with cell metabolism, reduction of gingivitis and periodontitis
what is the effect of sodium fluoride? cariostatic effect due to inhibition of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization
what are the uses of fluoride rinses? prevention of dental caries, reduction of hypersensitivity and gingivitis
which fluoride rinse is low potency, high frequency? sodium fluoride (NaF) stannus fluoride (SnF)
what are the ppm for sodium fluoride? .05/ 250 ppm or high potency of .2%/900 ppm
what are the ppm for stannous fluoride? .63%
what are the mechanisms of action for essential oil rinses? bacterial static- disrupts cell walls and inhibits bacterial enzymes poor substantivity, ant microbial and anti gingivitis agent
what is in essential oil rinses? thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, menthyl salicylate
what is the mechanisms of action of quaternary ammonium compounds? ruptures cell wall and alters cytoplasm, low substantivity
what are the mechanisms of action for oxygenating rinses? alteras bacterial cell membrane increasing permeability poor substantivity, reduces symptoms of pericoronitis and NUG
what is in an isotonic solution? 1/4 tsp salt 1/2 tsp baking soda
what is in a hypersonic solution? 1/2 tsp salt 1 tsp baking soda
what are the 2 ways fluoride gets into the body? gastrointestinal tract and blood stream
when does the teeth take up the most fluoride? 2 years prior to eruption rapid uptake into enamel for 2 years
where is the highest amount of fluoride in the enamel? enamel dentin pulpal surface second
what is enolase? enzyme needed by bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates fluoride inhibits this
what are the three protective effects of fluoride? inhibits demineralization, enhance remineralization and inhibit bacterial activity (enolase)
what is the optimum level of fluoridation in water? .7-1.2 ppm
what is the halo effect? commercially processed foods/ beverages in optimally fluoridated cities can be distributed and consumed in non fluoridated communities
professionally apply fluoride after what services? scaling and root planning, policing with prophy paste, air polishing, sealant placement, amalgam polishing, protect restorations from second caries
what is the ppm for sodium or neutral fluoride and how often should you use it? 9050 ppm ever 3 months or twice a year
what is important about sodium fluoride? will not etch restorations high potency/low frequency
Created by: Chobchi