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Endocrine System - 2

endocrine system

What are the 2 product homormones of the Thyroid Gland? 1. Thyroid Hormone 2. Calcitonin
What are the two population of cells in the Thyroid Gland? 1. Follicular Cells - produce Thyroid Hormone 2. Parafollicular or C cells - produce Calcitonin
Follicular cells & production of thyroid hormone Form central cavities where colloid is filled a fluid containg protiens make Thyroglobulin in the colloid iodide absorbed from GI Tract - cytoplasm attaches to tyrosine portion of thyroglobulin tyrosine molecules become linked & form thyroid hormone
Two types of thyroid hormone/Effects (which is produced from Thyroid gland, other hormone - calcitonin) T3 - 3 iodide atms T4 - 4 iodide atms They are Calorigenic - increase metab. rate, body temp, energy, promote breakdown of protien, lipid, carbs
Thyroid hormone feedback 1. Release of Thyroid releasing hormone TRH from Hyphothalmus 2. release of Thyroid stimulating hormone from Pituitary Gland
C-cells/parafollicular cells & production of calcitonin larger & squished between follicles involved in calcium homeostasis overproduction - lower bld calcium levels Inhibits osteoclast activity (slows release of calcium from bone) bone deposition of calcium (inhibits) calcium riding by the kidny
Parathyroid glands (4) posterior of thyroid gland Produce PTH(parathormone) calcium homeostasis...helps prevent hypocalcemia...removed=low blood calcium kidney & bone resorption, GI absorption
RISE OF CALCIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD 1. Thyroid gland produces calcitonin increased excretion of ca+ by kidneys calcium deposition in bone LOWERS SERUM CALCIUM
DROP OF CALCIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD 1. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increased reabsorption of by kidneys Calcium release from bone INCREASES SERUM CALCIUM
Adrenal Gland & parts Cap the kidneys 2 glands 2 sections: 1. Adrenal cortex (periphery) 2. Adrenal medulla (interior)
What are the 3 regions of the Adrenal Cortex? Each produce specific steroid hormones 1. Zona glomerulosa - closest to capsule 2. Zona fasciculata - middle zone, foamy appreance 3. Zona reticularis - closest to medulla
Zona glomerulosa - Adrenal Cortex of Adrenal Gland under capsule Produces mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Regulates sodium resorption by kids in exchange for K+
Zona fasciculata - Adrenal Cortex of Adrenal Gland Produces glucorticoids Effect on glucose metabolism Glucocorticoids : cortisol - [cortisone] in liver - corticosterone glucose formation, maintain blood p, resist stress
Zona reticularis - Adrenal Cortex of Adrenal Gland Closest to medulla Androges-sex hormones in small amounts
Adrenal Medulla of Adrenal Gland produces what two hormones? Interior - resembel nerve tissue 1. Epinephrine 2. Noreinephrine Under Symp Nervous System Control - last longer
HYPERadrenocorticism Cushing's syndrome & disease - weight gain, hairloss too much gluocorticids (fasciculata)
HYPOadrenocorticism Addison's disease, too little glucorticids (fasciculata)
Feedback of Glucocorticoids feed back to what two locations: 1. CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus 2. ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone from anterior pituitary gland GLUCOCORTICOIDS HAD INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON TWO
Pancrease - what are the two broad functions? 1. Exocrine - digestive enzyme (most mass of pancrease) 2. Endocrine - hormones produced by "Islets of Langerhans) small nodules of tissue throughout pancreas) Products: Insulin (beta),Glucagon (alpha), Somatostatin (Delta), Pancreatic Polypeptide F cell
What are the two group of cells in a pancreas? 1. Islet cells - endocrine function 2. Acinar cells - exocrine function - produce digestive enzymes transported to duodenum via 2 ducts
Islets of Langerhans & 4 population Nests or groupings spred b/w acinar cells 1. Alpha cells 2. Beta cells 3. Delta cells 4. F Cells
1. Alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans secret glucagon increases blood glucose lvl by increasing release of glucose by liver
2. Beta cells of Islets of Langerhans secret insulin decreases blood glucose by increasing body cell uptake & utilization of glucose
3. Delta cells of Islets of Langerhans produce like growth hormone inhibiting somatostatin suppresses release of insulin & glucose from other Islet cells
4. F cells of Islets of Langerhans produce pancreatic polypeptide (PP) inhibit gall bladder contraction
Diabetes Mellitus insulin deficiency
What does Insulin do? cause glucose in the blood to be absorbed into cells utilization of glucose
What does Glucagon do? causes bld lvl of glucose to rise deficiency is not ofter critical
RISE IN GLUCOSE causes insulin release normalize
DROP IN GLUCOSE causes glucagon release
Testes interstitial cells produce & release androgens stimulated by LH from pituitary Primary product/androgen - testosterone stimulation of bone & muscle build up
Ovaries production of estrogens & progestins Stimulated by FSH & LH from pituitary estrogens cause behavorial & phy changes Progestins help maintain pregnancy if needed
Kidneys - what three hormones are released? 1. Calcitriol 2. Erythropoietin 3. Renin
Hormones of Kidney - 1. Calcitriol steriod hormone released by Kidney release stimulated by PTH raises blood calcium (PTH raises ca lvl by causing calcitriol release)
Cholecalciferol (vit D3) converted to calcitriol related steroid produced in skin/absorbed in Tract
Hormones of Kidney - 2. Erythopoietin EPO release stimulated by low oxygen in Kidney tiss stimulates bone marrow production of RBCs deficiency - kidney failure - anemia due to low production of hormone
Hormones of Kidney - 3. Renin Enzyme Stimulus for release: 1. sympathetic stimulation 2. Decreased renal blood flow starts seq. that results in angiotensin 2(whcih stims release of Aldosterone &ADH) potent vasoconstrictor, pools bld centraly
GI Tract produce gastrin stimulates gastric gland to release HCl & enzymes stimulaltes gastric motility
Small Intestine secretin - stim pancrease to produce buffering fluid CCK - stim pancreas to release digestize enzyme & gall bladder contraction
Placenta produce estrogen, progestins, chorionic, gonadotropin - help maintain pregnancy
Thymus atrophy maturation of immune system matures cells to Tlymphs, crucial for immune responses
Pineal Body part of brain cyclic production of melatonin which affects sleep cucles
Prostaglandins derived from fatty acids - initiate inflamation
Created by: Yourdanos
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