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B1 Summary

Full B1 AQA Biology

All the non-living factors of an environment, which affect the organisms which live there eg light, salt, wind Abiotic
This word describes how the features or characteristics of organisms enable them to successfully compete within their environment. Adaptation
The nucleus from an adult body cell, eg a skin cell, is then inserted into the egg cell. Adult cell cloning
A small circular disc of paper soaked in a specific antibiotic, used in microbiology. Antibiotic disc
Helpful type of drugs available on prescription from the doctor, used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic
This occurs when a particular pathogen is no longer sensitive to or damaged by an antibiotic drug. Antibiotic resistant
Substances which can destroy invading pathogens. They are produced by white blood cells and are specific to a particular bacterium. Antibodies
A substance which can counteract toxins, produced by white blood cells. Antitoxin
As in 'reflex arc' the route taken by a nerve impulse through the nervous system during a reflex action. Arc
A habitat where the environment is extremely cold. Arctic
A very dry environment. Arid
Reproduction which results in genetically identical offspring because only 1 parent was involved eg yeast. Asexual
This is the name of the plant growth hormone Auxin
Simple cellular life forms, which possess cytoplasm, string and plasmid rings of DNA, cell membrane and cell wall. Bacteria may be harmless and useful to man, or they may be pathogenic because they produce toxin Bacteria
A diet which contains all of the nutrients in the right proportion, opposite to unbalanced. Balanced
The weight (mass) of all the organisms in a population, community or habitat. Biomass
All the living organisms of a habitat, affect the other organisms which live there. Biotic
This is the ability that some organisms possess to hide in their environment. For example polar bears possess a white fur coat, which means that they are hidden out of sight away from their prey. For example chameleons can change colour. Camouflage
A macronutrient; a group of organic chemicals containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Include large molecules of starch and small molecules like glucose. A source of chemical energy for organisms. Carbohydrates
An organism which obtains its food by eating animal material only. Carnivore
A feature or trait of an organisms appearance or behaviour eg blue eyes, intelligent. Characteristic
A fatty substance found in the blood. It's mainly made in the liver, it is used in the construction of cell membranes. Cholesterol
Strings of DNA found in pairs inside the nucleus of cells, they control inherited features. Chromosomes
Trials involving healthy volunteers and patients. Very low doses of a drug are given at the start of the clinical trial. If the drug is found to be safe, further clinical trials are carried out to find the optimum dose for the drug Clinical trial
Type of reproduction which produces identical offspring. Cloning
This word describes how all organisms compete or struggle to possess or share the resources of a habitat in order to survive. For example water, space, minerals, food, mates. Competition
An organism which obtains its food by eating either producers or other consumers or both. Consumer
A biological proccess which breaksdown biological material, the atoms are then recycled. Decay
Bacteria and fungi which are responsible for the breakdown of dead organic matter making raw materials making them available for recycling. Decomposer
A diet missing in a particular nutrient which leads to a specific set of symptoms eg lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy. Deficiency disease
Destruction of forests, leading to soil erosion, rainfall levels, and carbon dioxide levels. Deforestation
A habitat where the environment is extremely hot and dry. Desert
Chemicals applied to non-living objects to kill microrganisms. Disinfectants
An increase in the number of cells. Division
A system in which organisms interact both with each other and abiotic factors to form a self-sustaining unit. Ecosystem
A muscle or gland which brings about a response to a stimulus. Effector
splitting apart cells from a developing animal embryo before they become specialised, then transplanting the identical embryos into host mothers Embryo transplants
An outbreak of a disease affecting many people and spreading from person to person. Epidemic
Species of organisms which no longer exist eg dinosaur, mammoths. Extinct
Some organisms live in environments that are very extreme. Extremophiles may be tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures. Extremophiles
A macronutrient; Organic molecules constructed of chains of fatty acids with glycerol. A very energy rich nutrient source for organisms. Fats
Chemical used to feed plants, now known to affect oxygen an fish levels in rivers and lakes. Fertiliser
A pill which contains FSH which causes eggs to mature in the ovary, this therefore aids having a baby. Fertility drug
Name given to the fusing of the male and female gametes. Fertilization
Produced in the pituitary gland and sent to the ovaries to cause the immature follicles (eggs) to mature. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
A summary of the feeding relationships in an environment. The source of energy for the chain starts with the producer who is consumed by a herbivore, followed by the first consumer and so on the chain terminates with the top predator of the habitat. Food chain
Describes how a large number of organisms are linked together because of the feeding relationships between them; a web is a number of chains linked together. Food-web
Hardened\preserved remains of organisms which lived a long time ago. Fossil
Specialized cells used in sexual reproduction, the male cell is called sperm, the female cell is called egg. Gametes
Unit of inheritance, found on the chromosomes, each one controls one particular characteristic. Genes
In genetic engineering, genes from thechromosomes of humans and other organisms can be ‘cut out’ using enzymes and transferred to cells of other organisms. Genetic engineering
Genes can be transferred to the cells of animals, plants or microorganisms at an early stage in their development so that they develop with desired characteristics. Genetically modified
Organs in the body which manufacture hormones which are then secreted into the blood. Glands
This is the movement that plants show in response to gravity. Shoots show negative geotropism and roots show positive geotropism. Gravitropism or Geotropism
A part of the environment in which a community of organisms live eg pond, or wood, Habitat
An organism which consumes only plant material. Herbivore
Chemical Substances made by glands and secreted into the blood plasma where they are carried to a target organ. Hormones
A person has immunity against a pathogen if their immune system is capable of produces specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen. Immunity
Electrical signals passing along nerve pathways made up of nerve cells. Impulses
Caused by the genes obtained from the parents. Inherited
A metal loop with a glass or plastic handle which is used in microbiology to transfer bacteria from specimen samples to agar jelly. Inoculating loop
An organism formed from the symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus. Used as an indicator species for pollution as they are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. Lichen
Produced in the pituitary gland and released into the bloodstream on one day in the middle of the menstrual cycle where it causes a mature egg to emerge from the ovary in a process called ovulation. Luteinising hormone (LH)
An unbalanced diet produces a malnourished person who may be overweight or underweight; or may have type 2 diabetes, or a deficiency disease. Malnourished
The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out. Metabolic rate
The movement of organisms out of and into a habitat. Migration
A type of neurone which carries the impulse from the spinal cord to the effector muscle. Motor Neurone
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans, because it has become antibiotic resisant to some important antibiotics eg penicillin. MRSA
The mechanism of evolution, where only the fittest organisms survive to reproduce and pass on their genes. Natural selection
The body system which is composed of nerve cells, brain and spinal cord, and whose job it is to respond to changes in the environment. Nervous
Another name for a nerve cell, which are specialised for the conduction of impulses, they carry messages around the body. Nerve cells connect the receptors to the central nervous system; types include sensory, relay and motor. Neurones
Harmful and addictive drug found in tobacco. Nicotine
Hormone made in the ovaries and causes the lining of the uterus to thicken, it also switches off the production of FSH and switches on the production of LH in the pituitary gland. Oestrogen
The products of reproduction. Offspring
Animals like humans which eat both plants and animals. Omnivore
A pill which contains oestrogen and small amounts of progesterone, when taken on a daily basis it prevents FSH from being released which stops eggs from being released and consequently pregnancy. Oral contraceptive
Female organs where eggs or ova are made and then released into the fallopian tubes. Ovaries
An epidemic which starts to spread to different countries and continents is called a pandemic. Pandemic
A micro organism which causes disease; bacteria, virus or protozoa. Pathogen
Small lidded plastic dish used with agar jelly to culture micro organisms in microbiology Petri dishes
A process where a white blood cell engulfs and digests an invading microbe. Phagocytosis
This is the movement that plants show in response to light. Shoots show positive phototropism and move towards light and roots show negative phototropism and move away from the light. Phototropism
Pea sized gland found near the base of the brain, responsible for producing FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). Pituitary gland
The liquid part of the blood which contains water, salts, hormones, and minerals. Plasma
In some double blind trials, some patients are given a placebo, which does not contain the drug. Neither the doctors nor the patients know who has received a placebo and who has received the drug until the trial is complete. Placebo
Found in the bloodstream and are involved in blood-clotting. Platelet
Describes the contamination and damage to the environment by harmful chemicals like acid rain, which pollutes the atmosphere. Pollution
The total number of organisms of any one species in a particular habitat. Population
Processes by which one organism kills and eats another eg lions are the predators of zebra. Predation
Organisms which produces its own food eg plants. Producer
A means of displaying quantitatively the number of organisms or biomass at each trophic level in the food chain. Pyramid of numbers
An ecological diagram, which is used to display the amount of biological material at each trophic level in a food chain. Pyramid of biomass
This is the time it takes for a person to respond to a stimulus. Reaction time
Specialized cells found in sense organs, which can detect stimuli which are then passed through the nervous system. Receptors
Describes how important elements like carbon, are used over and over again. Recycling
A rapid response to a stimulus which takes place automatically eg blinking. Reflex
A very rapid nervous response where the route of the impulse avoids the brain, eg blinking. Reflex action
Type of neurone which carries the impulse through the spinal cord. Relay
Life processes whereby organisms produce more of their own kind. Reproduction
A reaction to a stimulus. Response
A Hungarian doctor (1818-1865), whose work demonstrated that washing hands prevented the death of mothers and babies who died from infections transmitted from doctors. Semmelweiss
Life processes whereby organisms respond to changes in their environment. Sensitivity
Type of neurone which carries the impulse from a receptor to the spinal cord. Sensory
Reproduction which results in genetically different offspring because 2 parents were involved eg humans. Sexual
An increase in the complexity of cells. Specialisation
Members of the same species are able to breed and produce fertile offspring. Species
In a stable community, the processes that remove materials are balanced by processes that return materials. The materials are constantly cycled. Stable community
These are medicinal drugs which are prescribed to patients to lowering the risk of heart and circulatory diseases. Statin
Stimulants are drugs which increase alertness, attention and energy; they do so by increasing blood pressure, heart rate and respiration. Stimulant
An event in the surroundings or in the inside of an organism which provokes a response. Stimulus
The junction between 2 neurones, chemical neurotransmitters diffuse across the physical gap between the 2 neurones. Synapse
A hormone produced by males which produces secondary sexual characteristics during puberty. Testosterone
a drug that was developed as a sleeping pill. It was also found to be effective in relieving morning sickness in pregnant women Thalidomide
The technique of using small groups of cells from part of a plant to grow into a whole new plant, identical to the parent donor Tissue culture
Groups of similar cells which can perform a single task eg muscle tissue. Tissue
A procedure used to stimulate a persons immune system by introducing a small harmless dose of a pathogen into the person’s body. Vaccination
Simple cellular life forms, which possess no cytoplasm, instead consist of a string of RNA, and a protein coat. Virus
A micronutrient; Required in small doses for the a wide range of different structures and processes eg vitamin K for blood clotting, vitamin C for skin and gum tissue. Vitamins
Actions which happen after the organism has thought about it and decided to do it eg eating, walking, talking. Voluntary
A type of cell found in the blood and lymph nodes, they play an important role in defending the body against pathogens by producing antibodies, antitoxins or by phagocytosis. White blood cell
A reference to the amount of useful product harvested from a crop. Yield
Created by: grovebiol