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Final Review Answers

Some questions created for the Test

“Strict scrutiny” is the level of judicial review the federal courts give to all cases that involve racial classifications.
A woman’s constitutional right to an abortion was established in Roe v. Wade (1973).
About what did Justice Potter Stewart confess, “I know it when I see it”? pornography
During the late 1940s and 1950s, ______ was the head lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. Thurgood Marshall
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and Roe v. Wade (1973) have been extremely important in the development of a constitutional right to privacy
If a person were imprisoned in the United States without an open trial before a judge, this action would violate the right of habeas corpus.
In 1890, ______ became the first state to allow women to vote. Wyoming
In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that quotas and separate admissions standards for minorities were unconstitutional but affirmative action could be used.
In West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, the Supreme Court announced that children cannot be required to salute the flag if it violates their religious faith.
Miranda v. Arizona was important because it produced rules that must be used by the police before questioning an arrested criminal suspect.
Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, ______ percent of black children in the Deep South attended school with white children. 1
The 1947 federal court case Mendez v. Westminster was significant because its decision to overturn school segregation of Mexican American students in California served as a precursor to Brown v. Board of Education.
The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.
The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees the right to vote for African American men.
The Seneca Falls Convention was significant because it marked the starting point of the modern women’s movement
The Supreme Court case Near v. Minnesota established the principle that only under the most extraordinary circumstances should the government prevent the publication of newspapers and magazines.
The Supreme Court case concerning smoking peyote during Native Americans’ religious rituals demonstrates that the Court’s key problem in ruling on religious freedom is to determine the difference between religious beliefs and conduct that is based on religious beliefs.
The Supreme Court’s ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson established the separate but equal rule.
The Terri Schiavo case was an example of the controversy surrounding the so-called right to die.
The ______ of the First Amendment protects an individual’s right to believe and practice whatever religion she or he chooses. free exercise clause
The ______ rule forbids the introduction in trial of any piece of evidence obtained illegally. exclusionary
The case of Gideon v. Wainwright established the right to counsel in felony cases.
The process by which the Supreme Court has expanded specific parts of the Bill of Rights to protect citizens against state and federal actions is called selective incorporation
The requirement that persons under arrest be informed of their right to remain silent is known as the ______ rule Miranda
The right against ______ prevents persons from being tried twice for the same crime. double jeopardy
What did the Supreme Court rule in Bowers v. Hardwick? There was no constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.
What did the Thirteenth Amendment accomplish? It abolished slavery.
What forbade workplace discrimination based on race? the Civil Rights Act of 1964
What happened to California’s Proposition 187? A federal court declared most of it a violation of the U.S. Constitution.
What is the name for school segregation that results from racially divided neighborhoods rather than state laws? de facto
What was the Supreme Court case that declared the exclusionary rule? Mapp v. Ohio
What was the Supreme Court’s ruling in Shelley v. Kraemer? Racially restrictive covenants on housing could not be enforced by courts
When the government blocks the publication of material it does not want released, this is known as prior restraint.
Which of the following cases helped lead to the Civil War by deciding that slaves had no due process rights even in free states and territories? Dred Scott v. Sandford
Who inaugurated government affirmative action programs? Lyndon Johnson
According to the article on "How to honor science and religion" ___ science explains "how" and religion explains "why"
President ___ ended segregation in the armed force and President___ ended the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy established under the Presidency of ___. Harry Truman; Barack Obama; Bill Clinton
The Supreme Court held that "fighting words" do NOT convey ideas and thus are NOT subject to first Amendment protections in the ____case Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire
The "clear and present danger" test was formulated in Schenck v. United States
A method that Martin Luther King, Jr. advocated using for the elimination of discrimination was nonviolent direct action
In 1965, ___led a strike of the United Farm Workers Union against growers in California resulting in better pay, working conditions and housing for farm workers. Cesar Chavez
In 1968, ___co-founded the ___ and established it to protect the traditional ways of Indian people and to engage in legal cases protecting treaty rights of natives. Dennis Banks; American Indian Movement
In the 2007 case of ______ the Supreme Court ruled that high school sltudent's speech can be restricted after a student was suspended for unflurling a banner reading "Bong hits 4 Jesus" as the Olympic Torch passed in Juneau, Alaska Morse v. Fredrick
___ is an oral statement made in "reckless disregard for the truth" and ___ is a written statement made in "reckless disregard of the truth, both of which are considered damaging to a victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory" Slander; libel
___literally "by law"; refers to legally enforced practices such as segregation and ____ literally, "by fact"; refers to practices that occurred even when here is no legal enforcement such as school segregation. de jure; de facto
Created by: Govt230