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isys 201

Understand the difference between the first and second lines of defense first line of defense is people. Second line of defense is technology.
Authentication is a method for confirming users’ identities
Authorization: is the process of giving someone permission to do or have something
Both are broken down into 3 categories, and the most secure type involves a combination of all three: 1. User ID and password 2. Smart card or token 3. Finger print or voice signature.
Content filtering when organizations use software that filters content to prevent the transmission of unauthorized information: ex: email filtering out spam mail into spam folder
Encryption scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information
Public Key Encryption (PKE) is an encryption system that uses two keys: a public one for everyone, and a private for the recipient
Firewall one of most common used. Firewall is a hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing the information leaving and entering the network.
FBI using technologies and code analysis to find the “Blaster Worm” that infected over 50,000 computers.
detection and response The final area where organizations can allocate resources.
The most common defense is antivirus software
Biometrics the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic.
Denial-of-service (DOS) attack and distributed DOS (DDOS) attack floods a website with so many requests or service that it slows down or crashes the site.
Hacker 1) work by request of system owner to find system vulnerabilities and plug the holes 2.)experts in technology who use their knowledge to break into computers and computer networks, either for profit or challenge
Hoaxes attack computer systems by transmitting a virus hoax, with a real virus attached.
Information security protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization. Combats threats against downtime.
Malicious code Code used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. Includes a variety of threats including viruses, trojan horses, and worms.
Packet tampering altering contents of packets as they travel over the Internet or altering data on computer disks after penetrating a network.
Phishing technique to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, usually by means of fraudulent emails that look as though they came from legitimate businesses
Pharming legitimate websites -> false websites; reroutes requests for legitimate website to false website.
Sniffer program or device that can monitor data traveling over a network. (passwords and sensitive information). Sniffer’s are favored by hackers.
Spoofing forging of the return address on an email so that the message appears to come from someone other than the actual sender. (way to conceal identity)
Spyware special class of adware that collects data about the user and transmits it over the Internet without the user’s knowledge or permission.
Trojan-horse virus hides inside other software, usually as an attachment or a downloadable file
Virus software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage.
worm spreads itself, from file to file and computer to computer. worms do not need to attach to anything to spread and can tunnel themselves into computers
Internet Global system of interconnected computers and other networks that uses a protocol TCP/IP to establish how data is passed between computers and networks.
WWW is a network of interlinked webpages of hypertext documents which exist on computers via the internet.
Browsers the software tools used to read HTML documents and display the context.
What is the current HTML standard? Do all web pages meet that standard? html 5 / no
web server a computer that has special software for making certain folders and files safely available to some or all people over the WWW
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) -the web address
How is white space used in HTML pages? White space makes the page more readable and less cluttered
What is the purpose of nesting and how should it be done? So that some tags are inside other bigger tags like <body> inside <html>
How do you link between files given a particular folder structure. to go into the folder foldername/filename.fileextension to go out of the folder ../filename.fileextention
understand when absolute references are preferable over relative references and vice versa Absolute path always includes domain name of website or exact location to retrieve the file from like C:// Relative references are like index.html or photos/bill.jpg NO PATH PROVIDED
If multiple competing styles exist for a given content, which style will actually be implemented? Last specification always wins.
outputs Display, Print, Prompt
why Gotos are prohibited goto allows a program to jump from one location to another location but this practice made it very difficult to maintain and update programs because it was almost impossible to follow the logic in a linear fashion.
What is a factorial? 5! = 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 x 1 = 120
Planning involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project and determining project goals. Planning is the first and most critical phase of any systems development effort an organization undertakes
analysis involves analyzing end user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
design involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation.
development involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
testing involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
maintenance involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals. continues for life of the system
Techniques for choosings strategic projects: 1. focus on organizational goals 2. categorize projects 3. perform a financial analysis
project scope statement describes describes the business need, justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
the project scope statement includes constraints, assumptions, and requirements--all components necessary for developing accurate cost estimates.
Characteristics of a well-defined project plan: 1. easy to understand 2. easy to read 3. communicated to all key participants (key stakeholders) 4. appropriate to the projects size, complexity, and criticality 5. prepared by the team, rather than by the individual project manager
Change management is a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management of the design and implementation of a system.
A change management system includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change.
change control board (CCB) is responsible for approving or rejecting change requests.
Risk Management is the process of proactive and ongoing identification, analysis, and response to risk factors. The best place to address project risk is during the project plan creation.
Organizations should take several actions at the enterprise level to improve risk management capabilities like 1. promote project leadership skills 2. learn from previous experience 3. share knowledge 4. create a project management culture
Direct Conversion-(plunge) Method where you just pull the plugs and use the other system overnight.
Parallel Conversion Run both systems at the same time and slowly transition
Phased Conversion Use the new system for a few things but not implementing the whole program all at once.
Pilot Conversion activate and test the system in one branch of the organization
Created by: skylerdm