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Biochemistry

TermDefinition
Polar Molecule One end is slightly positive and one end is slightly negative
Covalent Bond When to atoms share electrons
Polar Covalent Bond atoms share electron unequally
Non-Polar Covalent Bond electron is equidistant between the two atoms
Cohesion Water Sticks to water, causes surface tension
Adhesion Water sticks to certain surfaces such as jars
High Specific Heat Takes a lot of heat to heat up water, Break the hydrogen bonds
Solution Solvent+Solute
Hydrophilic Term used to describe something that will dissolve in water; Polar molecules are hydroliphic
Hydrophobic used to describe something that will not dissolve in water; Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic
Logarithmic scale every unit on the scale represents powers of 10
Organic contains Carbon
Inorganic does not contain Carbon
Proteins are made up of Amino Acids
Nucleic acids are made up of Nucleotides
Lipids(Fats) are made up of Fatty Acids
Carbohydrates are made up of Simple Sugars
4 Major Macromolecules -Nucleic Acid -Proteins -Lipids(Fats) -Carbohydrates
Functions of Carbohydrates -Quick Energy -Few Structural Compounds
Functions of Lipid -Component of cell membranes -Insulation -Stored Energy -Waterproof Coverings -Some hormones are lipids ex.Estrogen and Testosterone
Functions of Proteins -Structural Proteins ex.Keratin(Hair), Collagen(Finger Nails) -Transport Proteins ex.Hemoglobin -Defense Proteins ex.antibodies -Movement proteins ex.Muscle Cells -Some Hormones ex.Insulin -Enzymes-Biological Catalysts (Speed up reactions)
Functions of nucleic acid Tell cells what to do by telling cells what proteins to make
Types of Nucleic Acid DNA and RNA
Peptide bond special bond that connect amino-acids in a protein
Elements found in Carbohydrates Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Elements found in lipids Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Elements found in Proteins Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur
Elements found in Nucleic Acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous
Six most common Elements found in living things Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Sulfur
Three Examples of Carbohydrates mono-, di-, or poly- Saccharides
Monosaccharide -has one simple sugar -Glucose, Fructose, galactose, Ribose, and Deoxyribose
Disaccharide -Sucrose(table sugar), lactose(Milk Sugar), maltose(Malt Sugar)
Polysaccharide -Starch(in plants) -Glycogen (animals stored in liver and muscles) -Cellulose(Plant sell walls-fiber-can't be digested) -Chitin(only found in arthropod exoskeleton and Fungal cell walls)
Examples of Lipids -Fats, Waxes, Oils, Phospholipids, steroids
Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA
Dehydration Synthesis Reactions -Lose Water -Make (build) macro-molecule
Hydrolysis Reactions -Add water -Breaks Macro-milecules
Characteristics of Enzymes -3-d (Globular)proteins -Have an active site where substrate binds -Very Selective about the substrates they will interact with -Act as Catalysts(Get reactions going) -Speed up rate of reactions by 1,000,000(1 million times faster) -Names end in -ase
Factors that effect Enzyme function -Temperature, pH, Salinity, and Denaturation
Denaturation Change the protein and will not work anymore
Characteristics of DNA -Double Stranded -Sugar is Deoxyribose -has A,T,G,C(no U)
Characteristics of RNA -Single stranded -Sugar is Ribose -A,U(Uracil),C,G(no T)
.........H...R...O ..........\..|..// ...........N-C-C ........../..|..\ .........H...H..OH Amino Acid
Hexagonal or Pentagonal structure that only contains the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Simple Sugar
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-COOH Fatty Acid
Hexagonalstructure with 5 simple sugars, a base that contains Nitrogen, a Phosphoric group, and an acid Nucleotide
Created by: Eott55