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Cell Structures

Cell structures & functions

TermDefinition
Cell Wall Tough, rigid outer support that protects plant cells
Cytoplasm The gelatin-like substance inside all cells where chemical reactions take place
Nucleus The organelle that directs all of the cell’s activities
Nucleolus The membrane-bound object inside the nucleus where ribosomes are made
Mitochondria The “powerhouse” where food is broken down to release energy
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Folded membranes with ribosomes attached; transports proteins inside the cell
Golgi bodies The organelle that packages and delivers materials outside of the cell
Vacuole A storage sac for wastes and other substances
Cell Membrane The protective layer around the cell that allows materials to go in and out
Cytoskeleton The framework of fibers that supports the cell and gives it shape
Nuclear membrane The protective layer around the nucleus that allows materials to go in and out
Chloroplast A green organelle in plant cells where photosynthesis takes place
Ribosomes Small structures where proteins are made
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Folded membranes with no ribosomes attached; makes cellular substances like lipids
Lysosomes “Suicide sacs” – organelles that contain digestive enzymes that break down food, cell wastes & worn out cell parts
Central vacuole A large storage sac in plant cells that holds water and minerals, and supports the cell
Flagella Long, hair-like projections that help a cell move
Cilia Small hairs on cells that trap particles & help a cell move
Prokaryote A unicellular organism with no nucleus or organelles. Ex. bacteria
Eukaryote Cells with a nucleus & organelles. Ex. plants, animals, fungi, & protists
Chromosome Structures in the nucleus which are made up of DNA; carries the instructions for life
Vesicles The packages put together by the Golgi bodies to send out of the cell.
Centrioles Structures in animal cells that have a role in mitosis
Created by: nbiegel