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HPDP Exam I

QuestionAnswer
what is health state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
what is health promotion? the process of enabling people to increase control and improve their health through self care, mutual aid and the creation of healthy environments
what is disease? an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
what is the dental hygiene process of care? ADPIE assessment, dental hygiene diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation
what is meant by assessment in dental hygiene process of care? collection of objective and subjective date
what is meant by dental hygiene diagnosis in dental hygiene process of care? incorporate risk from assessment basis on which treatment plan is designed
what is meant by planning in dental hygiene process of care? establish priorities, set goals, interventions, prognosis
what is meant by implementation in dental hygiene process of care? put plan into action
what is meant by evaluation in dental hygiene process of care? determine if outcomes were successful, retreat or referral
what are preventive serves categorized in? primary services, secondary services, tertiary services
what is primary services person does not have disease, prevent disease fluoride, sealant, education, oral cancer screening, tobacco cessation
what is secondary services patient has problems but is not big, can fix and get patient back to health desensitizing for sensitive teeth, one fluoride treatment for incipient lesions, instructions to reverse early gingivitis
what is tertiary services? patient has a problem that we cannot heal and doesn't take problem away scaling, root planing for periodontal disease, for DDS more restorative, prosthodontics and reconstructive
what are the two branches of periodontal disease gingivitis and periodontitis
what is attached gingiva covers the alveolar bone
what is gingivitis? inflammation/ infection of the gingival tissue in the absence of clinical attachment loss or bone loss NO BONE LOSS, CAN CURE IT
what are the signs of gingivitis? edema/ swelling, erythema/ redness, increase gingival temperature, occasional pain, bleeding, no bone loss and reversible
what is periodontitis? inflammation/infection that affects and destroys the supporting structures of the teeth (periodontial ligaments and alveolar bone)
what are the signs of periodontitis pocket formation, bleeding, mobility, recession, furcations, bone loss and is irreversible
what are the primary factors of periodontal disease? bacterial plaque or biofilm
what is the contributing factors of periodontal disease? local factors, systemic factors, dysfunctional factors
what are the local factors of periodontal disease? calculus, crowded teeth, dental appliances, tooth anatomy, overhanging restorations, food impaction/open contacts
what are the systemic factors of periodontal disease? smoking, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, immune system, hormonal imbalance, genetics
what are the dysfunctional factors of periodontal disease? trauma from occlusion injurious habits
what is dental plaque induced gingivitis? most common type of gingivitis associated with plaque with or without local factors
what is dental plaque induced gingivitis modified by systemic factors? endocrine factors, blood dyscasias, medications, malnutrition
what is non plaque induced gingival lesion bacterial, fungal, viral, genetic, systemic, traumatic, foreign body reactions
what is chronic periodontitis? most common, slow progression, localized and generalized, horizontal bone loss
what is aggressive periodontitis periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease
what is case type I gingivitis/periodontitis gingivitis or healthy
what is case type II gingivitis/periodontitis early, mild periodontitis
what is case type III gingivitis/periodontitis moderate periodontitis
case type IV gingivitis/periodontitis advanced/ severe periodontitis
case type V gingivitis/periodontitis refractory
what is pellicle? tenacious membranous layer, originates from glycoproteins found in saliva and gingival fluids, first stage of plaque development
what is pellicle made of? serum glycoproteins from the saliva and gingival sulcus fluid supra- glycoproteins in saliva sub- glycoproteins in gingival sulcus
what does pellicle look like? clear, translucent, invisible to naked eye may become visible if plaque or stain accumulates on it
where do we find pellicle? all tooth surfaces, thickest point at gingival margin
how do we find pellicle? disclosing solution
what is the significance of pellicle? protective- an acid barrier lubrication- keeps surface moist/ prevents drying nidus for bacteria plaque colonization attachment of calculus
how do we get rid of pellicle? polishing, toothbrushing
what is plaque/biofilm? dense, non-mineralized complex mass of colonies in a gel-like inter-microbial matrix
what does plaque or biofilm look like? invisible, transparent, white film accumulated on the tooth surface sticky like peanut butter
how does pellicle form pellicle formation bacterial colonization plaque maturation
where do you find plaque or biofilm? supra and sub, proximal, occlusal, appliances
how do we find plaque or biofilm? disclosing solution, air water, explorer, probe
what is wrong with plaque or biofilm? primary etiological factor causes periodontal disease, oral infections, causes dental caries
what is calculus? calcified bacterial biofilm
what does calculus look like? supra and sub supra- white or yellowish sub- brown/ green /black
what is the range of time that calculus forms? 10-20 days deposition of minerals into the biofilm organic matrix
where do we find calculus supra gingival? lingual mandibular anteriors buccal maxillary molars
what is wrong with calculus? rough surface attracts plaque may prevent full healing may hinder self care
what is materia alba white material loosely adherent complex of bacteria and cellular debris formed on top of biofilm
what is materia alba made of bacteria, epithelial cells, leukocytes, salivary proteins and food particles
where do we find materia alba? along the gingival margin between teeth around crowded teeth
what is wrong with materia alba? unsanitary mouth halitosis- bad breath
what is extrinsic stain? on external surface
what is intrinsic stain? within the tooth surface
what is exogenous stain? caused by factors from outside the tooth
what is endogenous stain? stain originates within tooth incorporated within the tooth structure may be related to period of tooth development
what is extrinsic yellow stain? food pigment common to all ages
what is extrinsic black line stain continuous 1 mm line along gingival 1/3 black at base of pits and sealants, low tendency for dental decay predominately female healthy mouths
what is extrinsic green stain? chromogenic fungi/bacteria drugs DO NOT SCALE
what is the bass method used for? only effective method for sulcular cleaning
what are the indications for bass method? open interproximal areas, exposed root surfaces, abutment, periodontal surgery patients
what are the strokes of bass method? 10 strokes each area, press lightly without flexing, vibrate the brush direct bristles into the sulcus at 45 degree angle
what is the rolling stroke method used for? children
what are the indications for rolling stroke method? emphasis not on gingival sulcus, children with healthy gingiva sulcular technique too difficult, hold toothbrush and roll down
what do you use the rolling stroke method in conjunction with? bass, stillman, charters
what do we use modified stillman method for? gingiva massage
what are the indications for stillman's method? minimize gingival trauma massage of gingival tissue
what is the stroke for stillman method? press to flex filaments, angel filaments, activate brush, roll and vibrate the brush starting with all bristles on top of the gingiva then you move to a 45 degree angle and roll down
charters Method is good for othro, braces, pontics
charters method indications orthodontic appliances, pontiffs, post perio surgery, stimulate marginal and interdental gingiva
what are the strokes of charters method brush pointed towards occlusal, accomplish rolling stroke first, press lightly, vibrate brush, 45 degree angle
what are the indications of circular or fones method easy to learn for young children or elderly
what is the procedure of circular or fones method teeth closed, circular motion fast wide sweeping maxillary to mandibular gingiva
what is gingival recession margin moves apically root surface exposed vigorous pressured brushing with abrasive dentifrice and worn brush
what is gingival celfting or stillman's cleft narrow groove or slit extends from crest of gingiva to the attached gingiva looks like a bracket or a slit
what is gingival festooning or McCall's festoon? rolled bulbous hard, firm gingiva melted rubber tire, rolled tissue around tooth
what is embrasure type I? filled with papilla
what is embrasure type II? still a little papilla, open space with blunted papilla
what is embrasure type III? no papilla, large space in between teeth
what is waxed floss used for? what is unwaxed floss used for? waxed- tight proximal contracts unwaxed- normal tooth contracts
what is dental tape and what is it used for? wider, flatter and waxed preferred if surface area is large
what is PTFE or polytetrafluoroethylene or glide waxed, resists fraying, coated with teflon
braided floss is used for dental implants
what is tufted floss used for? fixed partial dentals or ortho embrasure type II and III
What are the two flossing methods? spool method loop method
what is spool method? wrap floss around middle finger, thumb and index finger guide it seesaw to get it into the contact, wrap C shape and up and down motion once in
what is loop method used for? children and patients with limited dexterity 2 ends tied together but works like spool
what are the pieces of tufted floss? waxed and unwaxed floss cylindrical nylon meshwork rigid nylon needle
what is the floss threader used for under fixed partial denture orthodontics under implant bars
what is the perio-aid or toothpick holder used for periodontitis and gingivitis, tooth concavities/furcations crowns and bridges, orthodontics, patients who won't floss but like toothpicks, fluoride desensitizing agents deliver
when should the perio aid should not be used healthy gingiva or type I embrasures limited manual dexterity
what is the technique to use the perio aid 90 degree angle and follow the gingival margin insert at the sulcus at 45 degree angle
what is a sulcus bush? used for patients who need to get into the sulcus and clean bass method
what is a sulca brush? one tuft, cut to a point, used for crowded area end tuft brush/ tooth pick holder/ proxy brush
what is the interdental brush or proxy brush used for? Furcation area good for ortho
what are the contradictions of interdental brush or proxy brush? healthy gingiva limited manual dexterity intact papilla
what is the technique for the interdental brush or proxy brush? should come from both the facial and the lingual
what is an end tuft brush? single tuft, nylon bristles, flat or tapered with a plastic handle
What are the indications for the interdental brush or proxy brush? interdental areas, fixed dental prosthesis, difficult to reach area, lack of manual dexterity, orthodontic appliance, crowded areas and third molars
what is the technique for interdental brush or proxy brush? 45 degree angle, bristles towards apical circular pattern
what is the rubber tip stimulator used for? interproximal/ embrasures, re-shape gingiva after periodontal surgery
what is the technique for rubber tip stimulator? 45 to 90 degree angle, follow the contour of gingiva, rotary motion, intermittent pressure
what do we use wooden interdental cleaners or stim-u-dents for? orthodontics, proximal spaces/ embrasures
when do we use knitting yarn? type III furcations, open furcations, abutments on implants, diastemas, isolated teeth
when do we use gauze strips? widely spaced teeth, abutment of implants
what is the hypochlorite solution made up of? 1 tablespoon bleach 2 teaspoons of calgon or water softener 1.2 cup water ONLY USE PLASTIC NO METAL
demineralization is... loss
remineralization is... gain
what are the plaque bacteria? strep mutans, lactobacillus
demineralization can occur at a pH of... 5.5 which is called the critical level for enamel
the acidic state lasts for about how many minutes before it returns to normal 40 minutes
class I caries pits and fissures
class II caries smooth surfaces, in between posterior teeth
class III caries smooth surfaces between anterior teeth
where are the largest percent of caries found on teeth? fissures on occlusal
what are the roles of saliva? cleansing, buffering, remineralizing, antibacterial
how does saliva cleanse? dilutes and removes acid concentrations of plaque
how does saliva buffer? sodium bicarbonate neutralize acids of plaque
how does saliva remineralize? calcium and phosphate prevents demineralization and repairs through remineralization
how is saliva antibacterial? substances from both salivary glands and immune system negatively affect caries bacteria
class V smooth surfaces in cervical third
what microflora cause cavities in smooth surfaces? S. mutans
what microflora cause cavities in root surfaces actinomyces naeslundii and viscosus, S. mutans and lactobacillus
what is the primary agent that promotes plaque formation and flavors colonization of cariogenic microorganisms sucrose
what do detergent foods do may have an effect on thickness of plaque
amount of sugar is not as important as the... frequency form it is in (whether it clears easily) when the sugar is consumed (meals or in between meals)
what is an incipient lesion? demineralization going on surface is intact though no bacterial penetration
what is an established lesion? surface layer breaks down, clinically detectable attack on dentin which is soft, infected tubules
what is the critical pH for cementum? 6.0
what does water do? maintain ingredients in formation
what does sodium fluoride do? prevent decay
what does hydrated silica do? abrasive
what does sorbitol do? humectant and sweetener, anti-cavitiy
what does dichlorinated phenol do? preservative
what does sodium lauryl sulfate do? detergent, for the bubbles
what does xantheam gum do? binder, prevent separation
what does calcium carbonate do? abrasive
what does alcohol do? preservative
what does xylitol do? humectant and sweetener
what is the definition of dentifrices? substances use with a toothbrush or other applicator for removal of soft tooth deposits application of therapeutic agents
what are the preventive and therapeutic benefits of dentifrices? caries prevention, remineralization, reduction of biofilm formation, reduction of gingivitis/ inflammation, sensitivity and supragingival calculus
what are the cosmetic effects of dentifrices? removal of extrinsic stain, reduction of oral malodor
what are the basic components of inactive ingredients in dentifrices detergent, abrasive, binder, humectant, preservative, flavoring, water did amy's binder hit peter's frikken wall
what is the purpose of detergent? lower surface tension, penetrate and loosen surface deposits, foaming action
what are the substances of detergents? sodium lauryl sulfate or lauryl sarcosinate
what is the purpose of abrasive? polishes/ cleans to produce smooth surface without damage to tooth surface smooth surface prevents re-accumulation of deposits
what are the substances of abrasives? calcium carbonate, phosphate salts, silica, silicates, dehydrated silica gels, hydrate aluminum oxide
what are the purpose of binders? stabilize the formulation prevents separation of ingredients during storage
what are the types of binders used? mineral colloids, natural gums, seaweed colloids, synthetic celluloses
what is the purpose of the humectant? retain moisture prevent hardening when exposed to air
what are the substances used for humectant? xylitol, glycerol, sorbitol
what is the purpose of preservative? prevent bacterial growth prolong shelf life
what are the substances used for preservatives? alcohol, benzoates, dichlorinated phenols
what is the purpose of flavoring? sweetener for patients acceptance masks other ingredients
what is the substances used for flavoring? essential oils (peppermind, cinnamon, wintergreen) artificial noncariogenic sweeteners (xylitol, glycerol, sorbitol)
what are therapeutic active components? anti-biofilm/ antigingivitis anti-calculus desensitizer oral malodor
how much tooth paste should a toddler get? 1/2 pea size
how much tooth paste should a older child (4-5) get? pea sized
how much tooth paste should an adult used? 1/2 inch
what does astringent do? shrinks tissues
what does anodynes do? alleviate pain
what does oxygenating do? cleansing
what are the functions of chemotherapeutic agents remineralization, antimicrobial, astringent, anodyne, duffering, deoderizing, oxygenating
what are the therapeutic compounds in Listerine? phenolic compounds, essential oil
chorhexidine is used for preprocedural rinse, before during and after periodontal debridement, high risk for dental caries, immunocompromised individuals prone to infection, post surgery for wound healing
chorhexidine interacts with sodium lauryl sulfate when rinsing is performed immediately after brushing
what fluoride rinse do you use for gingivitis and periodontitis? stannous fluoride
sodium fluoride low potency/ high frequency number .05%/ 250 ppm
stannous fluoride low potency/ high frequency number .63%/ 250 ppm
sodium fluoride high potency/ low frequency number .2%/ 900 ppm
essential oils is a combination of... thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, menthyl salicylate
Created by: Chobchi