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Week 5

Osteology

QuestionAnswer
Definition of Bone living, dynamic tissue that is always being remodeled and reshaped
Subdivions of Bone Long Bone Short Bone Flat bone Irregular Bone
What is an example of long bone Humerus
What is an example of short bone Carpals
What is an example of flat bone scapula, skull
What is an example of irregular bone Facial Metatarsals Vertebrae
What are the five purposes of the skeletal system? 1. provides a framework 2. Bone provides a reserve for minerals and lipids 3. Marrow within cavity produces blood cells 4. Protects vital organs 5. Skeleton allows muscles to move.
Osteoprogenitor Cells stem cells that create cells needed to repair -basis of osteoblasts
Osteoblasts carry out osteogenesis -control the amount fo organic and inorganic compounds within the bone matrix -basis of osteocytes
Osteogenesis formation of new bone matrix
Osteocytes mature bone cells, found in lacunae -dissolve and release minerals within the bone -can change into osteoblasts or osteoprogenitor cells to repair tissue
Osteoclasts large cells that dissovle minerals from the bone matrix, osteolysis
Osteolysis process of removing minerals from the bone matrix
Development of cells within Osseous Tissue Osteoprogenitor Cells->Osteoblasts->Osteocytes -> Osteoclasts
Macrophage large white blood cells
2 Categories of Bone Compact bone Spongy bone
Spongy bone composed ot lattice or network of branching bone spicules or trabeculae
What is within the lattice structure of the spongy bone Marrow
Compact bone mass of bony tissue lacking spaces visable to the unaided eye
What are Osteons also known as? "Haversion Systems"
Osteons make up compact bone -osteocytes form concentric circles around the central canal that contains blood vessels.
When is compact bone strong? When force is applies to the end of the canal.
When is compact bone less strong? When forces are applied perpendicular to calls
What do osteocytes live in? Lacunae
Caniculi passages that osteocytes communicate through
Wolffe's Law bone is made strongest wherever the greatest stress is put on it
What is the other name for spongy bone? Cancellous bone
Are the cells of compact bones the same as spongy bone? Yes, with a different arrangement
What does the spongy bone provide a framework for? Bone Marrow
The outer bone is lines with... Periosteum
What is the periosteum ties to the surface of the bone with? Sharpey's fibers
Inner aspect of the bone is lined with... Endosteum
Red Marrow makes... red blood cells
What can yellow marrow be transformed into? Red Marrow
How do flat bones develope? Through intermembranous calcification
What are the two types of calcification? 1.Outer shell of compact bone 2. Inner layer of spongy bone (diploe)
Haversion system is knows a the _______ _____ of bone structural unit
What are the layers of the cylinder composed around the central canal? Lamellae
What makes up the lamellae? Collogen
What are the collogen fibers so strong? Oriented at a 45 degree/perpendicular orientation
Between each lamination, what is found? Lacunae
What joing to Lacunae together and to the central canal? Caniculi
What connects Haversion cnalas together? Volkman's Canals
What do Haversion canals contain? blood vessels and nerves
How are the Haversion system arranges in compact bone? Tightly
What is another name for spongy bone? Trabecular Bone
How are the Osteons in spongy bone arranged? According to lines of stress
What does bone contain? Organic matrix (Osteoid) Mineral Matrix (hydroxyapetite)
Where is the main nutrient artery found? In shaft
What are the two types of growth in long bones? Appositional growth Longitudinal Growth
What do cartilagenous bones allow for? Longitudinal growth
Appositional Growth? bone grows thicker
What kind of cell facilitates appositonal growth? osteoblasts
How is the bone matrix broken down? digested through enzymes and HCL
Two forces of bony homeostasis/calcium regulation? Gravity Feedback Machanism
Gravity bone remodels according to lines of stress placed upon it (Wolffe's Law)
What happens when gravity is reduced? Reabsorption occurs.
What are the two major organs of calcium homeostasis? 1. Thyroid 2. Parathyroid gland
Thyroid Gland Secretes calcetonin -located anterior aspect of C5
Parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone -located posterior of thyroid gland
Pyramidal Lobe middle part of the thyroid gland
Ca homeostasis blood requires a relatively constant concentration of Ca
Process of the healing a bone trauma 1. Hematoma 2. Fibrocartilagenous callous formation 3. Bony callous formation 4. Remodelling
Fracture Types 1 1 Comminuted 2 Compression 3 Spiral 4 Epipheseal 5 Depressed 6 Greenstick
Drepression Fracture Occurs at the skull
Greenstick Fracture occurs in children
Avulsion muscle comes off the bone
Osteomalacia/Rickets softening of bones due to imbalances with Vit D
Osteoporosis progressive demineralization and body resorption
Pagets characterized by lytic then blastic phase
What does pagets cause? Tibial deformities and thickened cranial vault.
Created by: swalters4