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"Nervous" Terms and Definitons

central nervous system (CNS) the body's primary information processing system; includes the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS) network of nerves carrying signals into and out of the central nervous system
nerve bundle or bundles of neuron fibers surrounded by connective tissue
stimulus environmental change that triggers a response
sensory neuron nerve cell that carries information from the environment to the central nervous system
sensory receptor specialized cell that transmits signals to sensory neurons
interneuron nerve cell located entirely in the central nervous system that integrates sensory information and sends motor commands
motor neuron nerve cell that carries signals from the central nervous system to muscle or gland cells
reflex rapid, automatic response to a stimulus
dendrite neuron fiber that receives signals and carries them toward the cell body
axon neuron fiber that carries electric impulses away from the cell body and toward other cells
myelin sheath thick coat of material that surrounds and insulates the axon of some neurons
node uninsulated spaces between the "beads" of a myelin sheath where an action potential can be transmitted
resting potential voltage across the plasma membrane of a resting neuron
depolarization voltage change that occurs when the difference in charge across a membrane decreases
threshold minimum change in a membrane's voltage that must occur to generate an action potential
action potential change in voltage across the plasma membrane of a neuron resulting in a nerve signal
synapse junction between two neurons or a neuron and another cell where electrical or chemical signals are relayed
synaptic cleft tiny space separating a knob of a transmitting neuron from a receiving neuron or other cell
neurotransmitter chemical messenger that carries information from one neuron to another or to another cell
Created by: 2016henriquea



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