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Neural Tissue

Naming convention for neurons Function (sensory, motor, inter) Location (cortex, striatum, retina) Shape (pyramidal, bipolar)
Basic neuron shapes -bipolar (interneuron) -unipolar (sensory) -multipolar (motor) -pyramidal (brain)
What is the most common cell type in brain? What is the 2nd most common cell type in the brain? -Neurons -Glial Cells
What are the glial cells in the CNS? -oligodendrocytes -astrocytes -microglia
What are the glial cells in the PNS? -Schwann cells -Satellite cells
What is bigger, neuron or glial cell? Neuron
What's the big difference between CNS and PNS slides? CNS doesn't have connective tissue
What is the perikaryon? Cytoplasm of soma in neuron
What is the axon hillock? Beginning of electric impulse of neuron
What is the nucleolus composed of? Nucleic acids and proteins It's responsible for the transcription and assembly of ribosomal RNA.
What is the node or Ranvier? myelin sheath gap
What does the Nissyl stain do? Stains cell body, mainly the rough ER because it stains RNA. Stains dark blue. Stains both neurons and glia.
Weigert Myelin Stain readily distinguishes grey matter from white matter which is stained black.
Gogli-type Stain stains an entire cell but usually a small fraction of cell, this is random and unknown -silver staining -dendrite, axon, and cell body stained
What are the cellular components of a Peripheral Nerve? -neurons -Schwann cells -fibroblasts -endothelial cells -blood-borne cells
What are the connective tissue components of a Peripheral Nerve? What do they represent? -Epineurium: Outer edge of spinal nerve -Perioneurium: Outer edge of fascicle -Endoneurium: around axon -Fasicle: bundle of axons
What does myelin do? Makes conduction effective and efficient, thick and viscous protein.
How many axons can a Schwann cell myelinate? One axon
Saltatory conduction when nerve impulses jump from node to node, enabled by Nodes or Ranvier which speeds it up
What is clinically relevant about multiple scerosis? They have less myelin.
In the PNS, what cells are myelinated? -Somatic motor axons -Pre ganglionic axons of autonomic nerves -Some sensory axons like touch, pressure, muscle length, and joint position
In the PNS, what cells are not myelinated? -axons of post-ganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system -olfactory nerves -Some sensory nerves like pain and temperature
Ganglia formal definition a collection of neuron cell bodies located outside the central nervous system
What are examples of sensory ganglia? What are examples of autonomic ganglia? Sensory: DRG, Cranial Nerves Autonomic: Sympathetic, Prevertebral, Paravertebral, Intramural
What are the contents of ganglia? -Neurons -Satellite cells Fibroblasts and Connective tissue -Blood vessels
How do you distinguish DRG (sensory ganglia) in slides? Densely packed and very organized
How to distinguish Sympathetic neuron cell bodies? -often more widely dispersed, with a meshwork of nerve fibers lying between them. -nerve fibers generally are not as well organized
What are the sensory endings of the PNS? 1. Free nerve endings (temperature and pain) 2. Meissner's corpuscles (touch) 3. Pacinian corpuscles (pressure)
What makes up the CNS? Brain, brain stem, spinal chord, gray (switch) and white (wire) matter.
What is gray matter? Cell bodies
What is white matter? Axons
What are the three types of glial cells in the CNS? What do they do? Astrocytes - "glue" that provide nutrients to blood stream Oligodendrocytes - myleninate Microglia - macrophages of CNS
New level of Astrocytes -regulate the level of "firing" of neurons - release transmitters -release trophic factors which modify processing info -regulate neuronal death
What do oligodendrocytes do? Myelinate cells in the CNS, can myelinate several axons
What do microglia do? Where are they derived? -Recruit t cells to site. -Important in tissue degradation and repair, and homeostasis -derived from bone marrow
Created by: brittvac