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STEAM Cell Biology 1

Cell organelles

TermDefinition
Prokaryote A group of cells whose cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle. In most cases, unicellular.
Eukaryote A group of organisms whose cells have membrane enclosed nuclei and other organelles. Usually multicellular.
Unicellular Consisting of a single cell. Pertaining to protozoans, certain algae and spores, etc.
Multicellular Of an organism or part. Having or consisting of many cells, or more than one.
Cell Theory 1)The theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms, proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleider and Theodor Schwann. 2) All cells come from living cells.
Cell Wall A rigid layer of polysaccharides (carbohydrates made of sugars) outside the cell membrane in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In algae and higher plants, it consists of mainly cellulose.
Cell Membrane The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell, like the "skin" of a cell.
Nucleus A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA, responsible for growth and reproduction, Like the "headquarters" of a cell.
Chromatin The material of which the chromasomes of organisms (eukaryotes)other than bacteria are composed. Made of DNA, RNA, and protein. Genetic material in nucleus, loose strands, before called into action.
Chromatid One of 2 identical chromasomal strands into which a chromasome splits preparatory to cell division.
Lysosome The organelle responsible for disintegrating a cell after death.
Vacuole Basically storage bins for cells. Are longer in plant cells. Store nutrients and sometimes waste to avoid contamination.
Chloroplast Only in plants/some protists. Convert solar energy into sugar.
Golgi Body Organelle made out of things that look like flattened sacks. Takes secretary and synthetic products from ER and delivers finished products to organelles where needed. "maze of tubes, transports stuff"
Cytoplasm The part of the cell between the cell membrane and nucleus, has organelles, cytosol, cytoskeleton, and particles of all sorts. Like a gel/jelly/
Mitochondrion Makes energy, found in large number in cells. Respiration and energy production occur. Double membrane.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A network of tubes/ tubular membranes in the cytoplasm with either a smooth or rough surface. Rough is studded with ribosomes, involved with transport of materials.
Ribosomes Tiny mitten shaped organelles in clumps or alone in cytoplasm. Makes protein, a part of the rough ER.
Created by: stupidity