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BIOLOGY

THE CELL QUIZ organelles and function

TermDefinition
plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins: controls what enters or exits the cell
nucleus control center for the cell; contains the DNA and RNA needed to control all cell activities
ribosome made of rRNA and produces proteins by bonding amino acids in chains
endoplasmic reticulum folded network of membranes; compartmentalizes the cell for the production of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins
rough ER membranes have ribosomes attached and is involved in the production of proteins that will leave the cell
smooth ER membranes have NO ribosomes attached; involved in the production of lipids, carbohydrates, and the storage of toxins
Golgi apparatus folded stack of membranes with vesicles; involved in altering products of the cell and packages them for shipment out of the cell
lysosome a single membrane sac of hydrolytic enzymes; involved in intracellular digestion
vacuoles a single membrane sac used for storage of water, food, and wastes
mitochondria double membrane bound organelle involved in the production of cellular energy (ATP); the site of cellular respiration
chloroplast a double membrane bound organelle involved in the production of glucose and other carbohydrates by photosynthesis; contain chlorophyll and other pigments
cell wall multilayered (cellulose fibers) outer boundary of plant cells; gives the plant cell its support
cytoskeleton network of microtubules and microfilaments providing internal support for a cell
central vacuole found in the center of plant cells; involved in the internal support (turgor pressure) of the plant cell
centrioles complex of microtubules that is involved in cell reproduction
nucleolus composed of RNA; located in the nucleus and produces the ribosomes
chromosomes linear strands of DNA; contains hereditary information
cytoplasm the protein rich, liquid portion of the cell; contains most of the organelles
microtubules hollow proteins forming tubules; make the cilia, flagella, and centrioles; also a major portion of the cytoskeleton
Created by: biobob