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Great Britain and EU

AP Comp Gov - Chapter 2

Great Britain England, Scotland, and Wales
United Kingdom / Britain Great Britain and Norther Ireland
unitary state political decisions all made by parliamentary gov in London with fusion of powers
fusion of powers executive and legislaure not separated
devolution more local decision making power has been given to legislatures in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland
gradualism political change in Britain; took place gradually such as shift in policymaking from mocarch to Parliament; due to island geography
1066 - invasion of Normas unification of state under Normans; census = domesday book, used for taxation and control
1215 - Magna Carta established principle of limited government; king was not absolute monarch above the law and needed to consult nobility in Parliament
!523-36 - English Reformation started forces that would depoliticize the church
1688 - Glorious Revolution established parliamentary supremacy; gives parliament "power of purse" ie fiscal power and a bill of rights
1701 - Act of Settlement regularized procedures for royal succession and asserted that monarchs must govern in accordance with parliamentary laws
1700s - emergence of prime minister 1st among equals
collective responsibility cabinet is publically united; don't walk out of cabinet meeting bad mouth prime minister
parliamentary democracy in 1911 when House of Lords stripped of remaining power
common law legal system based on local customs and precendent rather than formal legal codes
British Common Law developed over 100s of years; decisions of public officials and courts make to set precedents for later action and decisions, eventually forming a comprehensive set of principles of government
Law of Lords summit of judicial system; becomes independent UK Supreme Court in 2009
British constitution not single document; developed over 100s of years; consists of: 1 acts of parliament; 2 common law; 3 tradition (convention)
hegemonic power UK was world's greatest empire in 1800s
interventionist state rose post WWI; greater control of number of industries needed for "total war"; post war, union opposition, state increased management of certain industries
nationalizing extpanded state role in economy; ex: nationalized Bank of England, civil aviation, iron/steel industry, etc
National Health Service (NHS) virtually free health care for all citizens
geopolitical influences on Brit few invasions; not huge country, makes for stability; island = strong navy
collective consensus 1951-63; for state-centered solutions; consevatives joined with labour so they can get back in power
trans unions congress workers union
confederation of British industry union of management
winter of discontent falling economic conditions created strikes; cost Labour the next election
Thatcherism repudiate main tenets of British collectivism by bringing neoliberalism; favors private sector ove state ownership; monetarism over keynesianism
enterprise culture promoted by thatcherism; denationalized state-owned industries and attacked culture of dependency
poll tax downfall of thatcher; on individual to supplement existing income tax
pragmatic consensus characterized by john major; pursued popular issues like abandoning poll tax and appointing more women to cabinet posts
Maastricht Treaty JM conditional agreement to EEC (later, EU); faced strong domestic opposition
New Labour led by Tony Blair; called for "Third Way"
Third Way alternative to Thatcherism and old Labour social welcare
Chancellor of Exchequer Gordon Brown - understanding that Brown was successor to Blair
Good Friday Agreement successful negotiations for northern ireland between protestants and catholics
Blair Doctrine humanitarian intervention in Sierra leone and Kosovo
bill of rights adopting european convention on human rights in 2000
independent judiciary turned the law lords into a uk supreme court
freedom of information act overturned much of official secrets act
devolution more home rule and elected assemblies in scotland, wales, norhtern ireland (w/ proportional representation ther)
euroskeptics want to exit the EU
fusion of powers expedites passage of legislature
Law Lords highest court of appeal; was in House of Lords, but moved to independent supreme court in 2009
head of state monarch; has little rights but participates in seremonial, symbolic roles
cabinet PM and ministers, each heads a major government bureaucracy
collective cabinet center of policy making of Brit political system
role of PM head of gov; powers derived from sutom rather than written law
party discipline all members of party's parliament delegation expected to vote same way; party chooses what district a person will run in
loyal opposition the minority party
shadow cabinet senior member of loyal opposition
backbenchers members of parliament with no cabinet position
first reading readied by government, introduced to commons
second reading if majority supports, goes t ocommittee for detailed scrutiny
third reading post committees, in fashion the gov wants; final vote
question time allows members of parliament to address questions to PM; enables opposition to hold ruling party accountable for its policies
party whip important in getting out vote; inforces party discipline
vote of confidence ruling party wants to avoid this; if ussue not supported, cabinet must resign immediately w/new elections for MPs; drastic measure, avoided by settling policy differences w/majority party membership
hereditary peers went from 50% to vast minority of House of Lords
life peers majority of House of Lords now; nominated based on merit
bureaucracy / civil service whitewall; critical role in advice on and execution of gov. policies; party of exec branch; merit-based; DOESN'T MAKE - JUST ADMINISTERS POLICY
new public management reduction in size and type; 1/3 technocrats
QUANGOs quasi-autonomous non-gov organizations; gov moved various functions to these; like independent US agencies like EPA
linkage institutions print/e-media, political parties, interest groups, etc.;
whigs liberal party
tories conservative party
labour party formed early 20th century in response to new voter demands
labour party largest leftist party; alliance of trade unions and socialist groups; now neoliberal reforms with traditional emphasis on social welfare programs
Clause 4 called for nationalization of major industries; removal in 1990s = New Labour of Blair
conservative party largest rightist party; usually viewed as elitist; 2 factions: 1. traditional: elitist, favor EU membership; 2. Thatcherite: strict conservatives, Euroskeptics, David Cameron
liberal democratic party strong centrist party undermined by movement of labour party to center; opposed war in Iraq; Nick Clegg; under represented
Created by: seniors14