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First Test Sociology

Sociology

TermDefinition
Best def of Sociology Study of behavior as social beings, social aggregations, and overarching study of all studies
Hierarchy of Sciences Astronomy, Physics, chem, bio, then soc
Comte's agenda for sociology Document and analyze parts of society like family, business, governments, and how they fit together, and analyze everyday social processes that occur within these parts
Carry capacity Number of individuals that can be supported by the resources without degrading the environment
Malthusian theory Population increases geometrically, food production increases arithmatically
Positive Checks Famine, disease, disaster, war, infanticide, murder
Preventative Checks Abstinence, contraception
Malthus Critcisms (4) 1. Underestimated subsistence technology effectiveness 2.
Herbert Spencer Society as an organism, full of interrelated parts. Universal law, society went from homogeneity to heterogeneity
Social Darwinism Societies that grow and evolve are better adapted to changes in environment, wars that happen
Emile Durkheim French sociologist, solidarity
Mechanical solidarity Comraderie, kinship, collective consciousness, common beliefs and values
Organic Solidarity Mutual dependence on others for survival, social exchanges, also education and law inforce this
Anomie When rapid proress and specialization occurs, confusion, conflict in the norms of society, higher rates of disputes, suicide
Karl Marx (and Fredrich Engels) German political-economist, activist, philosopher
How proletarians are alienated the objects of labor, from others, from labor process, from themselves
Capitalism has two structures Base/substructure economy, methods of production, sites of exchange; superstructure, social institutions, government, justice system, education
False consciousness The thought that tequa has, that it is fair, bourgeoisie don't exist
Class consciousness Replace false consciousness with this, revolt against government and bourgeoisie
Socialism Transition state between capitalism and communism
Problems with social stratification theory (classes controlled by ownership of means of production)(3) Existence of contradictary class locations and the middle class. Ignores non-economic dimensions - power, authority, social status, prestige, capital. It assumes that all other inequality stem from economic inequality
Rationalization Social action becomes increasingly organized by rational principles, codes, guidelines, numbers, regularization of action, breaking down complex into manageable parts
Max Weber German sociologist, rationalisation
Iron Cage Rationalisation creates an iron cage of efficiency that we can't escape
McDonaldisation Efficiency; predesigned processes minimize time needed for task, calcuability; 3 oz hamburger, predictability, control, micromanagement of customers and workers
Georg Simmel German, friend of Weber. Urban sociology, intensification of stimulation in city, overwhelming, so many strangers. Leads to "blase attitude" indifference toward others
Chicago School of Sociology 1920s-30s, urban sociology, first school of soc.
Concentric zones Business in the middle, residents farther out. Competition, invasion and succession into zones
Social problems, isolation, disorder, crime are the result of Weakening of norms of civility and sociability, no primary group ties, reduced effectiveness of informal social control like family and religion
Jane Jacobs Challenged conventional urban renewal efforts, called for sidewalks, intermingling, urban spaces facilitate social control, eyes on the street, residential and business coexistence, sidewalks
Subculture theory Urban areas yield a critical mass that enables the formation of social ties among people who have similar interests, which provides a basis for social cohesion
Different people affected by city The more well-off villagers seek out what city has to offer, while deprived feel trapped in poverty
Deviance Behavior that is disapproved, exceeds tolerance of community, can result in sanction, it's a SOCIAL CONSTRUCT, behaviors are not inherantly deviant
What deviance stems from, or theories 1. Social disorganization, deviance is function of disorganization from poverty, heterogeneity, residential turnover 2. Strain, results from unavailabilty to achieve common goals. 3. Rational choice, decision of benefits outweighing costs.
What deviance stems from (cont) 4. Differential assossiation (learning): Those who assocate with deviants likely to be deviant 5. results from internalization of deviant labeling
Robert Merton Deviance guy with Columbia. Coined terms role model, self-fulfilling prophesy. Ambition promotes deviant behavior.
Anne Hochschild U-Cal Berkely, plight of working women
Service jobs problems (3) Physical labor removed, but 1. Supression, self-supression of bad emotions 2. Acting, faking emotions one doesn't feel 3. Cognitive reappraisal, altering how one sees events later on to change reaction
Created by: tequa