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CH Section 1.2 Vocab

Cell organelles

TermDefinition
cell wall The stiff outer layer of PLANT cells that protects and supports the cell.
cell membrane This structure surrounds and protects the cell and controls what enters it and leaves it.
nucleus This organelle directs all of the cell’s activities; It is the control center of the cell.
chromatin Thin thread-like strands inside the nucleus that contain genetic material, the instructions that direct the functions of a cell.
cytoplasm The jelly-like area between the cell membrane and nucleus where many cell organelles are located.
mitochondria Rod-shaped structures called the “powerhouse” of the cell because they produce most of the cell’s energy.
endoplasmic reticulum A maze of passageways that carry proteins and other materials all around the cell.
ribosome Tiny structures on the ER; they are "factories" that produce proteins for the cell.
Golgi body A flattened collection of tubes that receive, package, and deliver new materials to and from other parts of the cell.
chloroplast GREEN structures in plant cells that capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food.
vacuole Storage for food and water. Plants wilt when there is not enough water stored here.
lysosome Small structures that break down food and recycle old cell parts.