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Macromolecules

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 types of macromolecules? carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acid
The "pieces" of macromolecules monomers
The large molecules made by monomers polymers
ELEMENTS found in carbohydrates C, H, O 1:2:1 ratio
ELEMENTS found in lipids C, H, O no ratio
ELEMENTS found in protein C, H, O, N, & sometimes S
ELEMENTS found in nucleic acids C, H, O, N, P
functions of carbohydrates energy, energy storage, and some structures
monomers of carbohydrates monosaccharides
polymers of carbohydrates polysaccharides
polysaccharide used for energy storage in plants starch
polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals glycogen
polysaccharide used for structures - in plant cell walls cellulose
polysaccharide used for structures - in exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans chitin
monomers of lipids triglyceride (1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids)
lipids that are solid at room temperature fats
lipids that are liquid at room temperature oils
straight fatty acid chains with NO double bonds (full of hydrogen) saturated fats
bent fatty acid chains with at least 1 double bond (not full of hydrogen) unsaturated fats
lipid that makes up the cell membrane phospholipid
monomers of protein amino acids
amino acids are held together with _________ bonds peptide
proteins that act as catalysts enzymes
catalysts (like an enzyme) _______-_______ reactions speed-up
"______ & ______" - each enzyme only works on one specific molecule and does only one specific job Lock & Key
the molecule the enzyme acts on substrate
part of the enzyme where the substrate fits active site
monomers of nucleic acids nucleotides
3 parts of the nucleotide nitrogen base, sugar, & phosphate group
polymers of nucleic acids DNA & RNA
functions of nucleic acid carry and transfer hereditary information, blueprint for life
Organic molecules must include which element? Carbon
The amount of energy needed to start a reaction (enzymes lower this). activation energy
Created by: ballb