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Preclinic Exam 2

Pre-clinic Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
what are the parts of the instrument? handle, shank, working end
what is on the instrument handle? design name, design number, manufacturer
what is unpaired working ends? instruments with two dissimilar working ends both ends don't match (explorer)
what is paired working ends? instruments with working ends that are mirror images of each other look the same, but can't use the instrument on all teeth
what is design name? Design number school or person who designed instrument identifies the working end
what is recommended for the handle of instrument? large diameter, light weight handle, bumpy texturing (knurling)
what should you avoid for the handle of instruments? small diameter, heavy and small solid metal handle, smooth or flat texturing
what are the three characteristics that must be considered for the handle of instruments? weight, diameter, texture (knurling)
what is the working end of an instrument? last bend all the way to the end of the instrument
knurling helps the hygienist... hold on to the instrument in the wet field and increases control and decreases muscle fatigue
what is the functional shank? below working end and extends to last bend in shank near handle
what does the functional shank allow the hygienist to do? allows working end to be adapted to the tooth
where is the short functional shank used? supragingival scaling only
where is the long functional shank used? supragingival and subgingival scaling
lower shank or terminal shank is what? sectional of functional shank nearest working end
what is the lower shank used for? provides visual cue for correct working end right end of the instrument
what is a simple shank design curved in 1 plane (front to back) straight shank instrumentation of anterior teeth
what is a complex shank design? bent (front to back and side to side) angulated or curved shank (get around teeth with big shapes) instrumentation of posterior teeth
what is flexible shank design? thinner diameter greater tactile sensitivity for small and medium deposits more pressure needed for medium deposit
what is rigid shank design? larger diameter withstands heavy pressure for large deposits les pressure needed
what is tactile sensitivity? the ability to feel vibrations that are transmitted through the tip into your middle finger
what kind of working end does the curet have? semi-circular shape
what kind of working end does the scaler have? triangular
what is a balanced instrument? working end of a balanced instrument is centered in line with the long axis of the handle the distance from the working end to the shank should not be less than 35-40 mm
where do we use curets? subgingival
where do we use scalers? supragingival
what are assessment instruments? help us gather information on the patient probe (attachment) , explorer 11/12 (find deposit supragingivaly and subgingivaly), shepord's hook (carious lesions)
what do all the assessment instruments have in common skinny, flexible shanks used supragingivaly
what are debridment instruments? scalers for heavy deposit sickle scaler, file, hoe, chisel
what are area specific curets? complex shanks that are not universal use them for certain specific areas of the teeth
what are the problems using an incorrect instrument? difficulty accessing area inadequate deposit removal muscle fatigue gouged root surfaces breakage of instruments
what are the parts of the mouth mirror? handle, shank and working end
how do you hold the mirror when it is not in use? palm grasp because you waste energy when you reach over and grab it from cassette every time
how do you use the mirror put in non dominant hand, palm grasp or modified pen grasp, fulcrum for retraction
where is the thumb and index finger held in modified pen grasp? thumb and finger opposite each other at or near the junction of the handle and the shank and do not overlap
where is the middle finger in the modified pen grasp? rests lightly on the shank
where is the ring finger in the modified pen grasp? it is your fulcrum finger, stabilizes the hand and supports the hand
where is the little finger in the modified pen grasp? near ring finger, has no function in the grasp held in a relaxed manner
what is indirect vision? viewing teeth through the mirror when direct vision is not an option viewing linguals of maxillary anteriors
what is indirect illumination? using mirror to reflect light into an area that is hard to see working on linguals of the lingual surfaces of maxillary posteriors
what is transillumination? shining light through the teeth in order to view calculus using mirror on facial surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth
what is retraction? using mirror to hold back the tongue or cheeks out of the way when working on teeth
what can you do if your mirror gets foggy? warm on buccal mucosa warm in palm of hand ask patient to breathe through nose dip in a cup of listerine or rinse with air water syringe
what should you avoid with mirror hitting teeth, injuring alveolar bone, scratched mirrors, foggy mirros
which buttons do what on the air water syringe left is water right is air
what is the air water syringe used for in examination? through examination dry supragingival calculus visibility deflect free gingival margin to see calculus recognize restorations
what is the air water syringe used for in treatment? dry area for finger rest evaluate complete deposit removal applications of caries prevention agents
how is the air water syringe used palm grasp, test air flow prior to patient insertion apply short controlled bursts of air
what should you avoid with the air water syringe? assembling incorrectly, spraying air forcefully, creating aerosol, causing splatter, startling patient, hypersensitive teeth, carous lesions
throughly dried supragingival calculus appears... chalk-like
if your patient has hypersensitive teeth or carious lesions, you should use.. gauze
air is used to deflect the free gingival margin in order to detect... subgingival calculus
the air syringe is held with a... palm grasp
dried calculus is easier to detect than wet calculus with the explorer because it is... less slippery
what are the different types of grasps? pen, modified pen, palm grasp
what type of pressure do you need when doing the instrument grasp? light, firm, rigid
what do overlapping fingers make it difficult to do? roll the instrument
what holds the instrument secure? index finger and thumb
what is the finger that stabilizes, leads and supports the hand in modified pen grasp? ring finger
what does wrist/forearm motion entail? keeping our wrist inline with our forearm
what is rolling arm motion? pivoting process initiates movement of an instrument from the fulcrum finger writs rolls left to right
what does the intraoral fulcrum do? stabilization of the dominant hand in the mouth pad of ring finger on tooth near the tooth to be worked on
where should the intraoral fulcrum be placed inside the mouth ideally? 1-4 teeth away from being instrument never rests directly on tooth surface being scaled
where can the intraoral fulcrum be placed on the teeth? incisal edge or occlusal surface occlusobuccal line angle occlusolingual line angle
what are the benefits of the fulcrum stable support, unit, stroke pressure, decrease injury
what are the limitations of the fulcrum missing teeth, mobile teeth, sensitive teeth, facial musculature
what end should be adapted to the tooth of the curet? toe 1/3
what end should be adapted to the tooth of the sickle? tip 1/3
how can we make a fulcrum if patient is missing teeth? cotton roll, gauze
what is the ideal angulation? 60-80 40-90
what is the leading third of a curet working end? semi circular toe third
what is the leading third of a sickle working end? triangular tip third
what is the inserting angulation? 0-40
what is angulation? relation between the face of the working end and the tooth surface
what is the working angulation for the instrument? 60-80
why do you use angulation when you are inserting the blade onto the tooth two cutting edges, close the cutting edge up against the tooth and slide it down, cutting edge doesn't cut the gingiva
what is the place of insertion or "get ready zone" for anterior teeth? midline
what is the place of insertion or "get ready zone" for posterior teeth? distal line angle
what is the assessment/exploratory stroke? long, feathery-light stroke
what does the explorer use to detect? irregularities, smooth surfaces
what does the probe detect? locate attachment
what is the calculus removal/scaling/working strokes? biting, well controlled stroke moderate to heavy pressure, removal of deposits , reshape overhanging margins
what is the root debridement stroke? multidirectional, shaving stroke moderate stroke becoming lighter and longer
what is burnishing calculus? remove outer spicles and round the deposit so it feels like tooth surface it is harder to remove after it has been burnished
how do you flip your instrument never near the patient's face, flip over chest or over bracket tray
do not take scaler where? subgingival
what are the factors that affect stroke selection? gingiva, tooth surface, instrument, deposit
what are horizontal strokes? around line angles, infurcation areas, in deep pockets too narrow for other strokes
where will we use horizontal strokes mostly? buccal and lingual of molars
what are oblique strokes? insert base of pocket tip towards base of pocket
where do we use oblique strokes? facial and lingual surfaces of posterior teeth
where do we use vertical strokes? anterior teeth- facial, lingual and proximal surfaces posterior teeth- mesial and distal surfaces
where do you start when removing deposit? most apical piece of deposit and continue removing in sections until you remove the most coronal
what are the types of sickle scalers? curved sickle scalers straight sickle scalers
what does the face look like with the curved sickle scaler? face is flat, curved lengthwise, perpendicular to lower shank
what is an example of simple shank design sh 6/7
what is an example of complex shank design? s204s9
what does the cross section look like in a curved sickle scaler? triangular
what are the contradictions for using sickle scalers? sharp cutting edge, bulky instrument, lacerates gingiva easily cannot be used in root planning, cannot be adapted to the concavities to the root, can result to root gouging
is the fulcrum a stationary or moving point? both, pivot on your fulcrum to get around the line angle
high fulcrum is what? up on your ring finger
low fulcrum is what? dropping your hand down
how do you check if you have the correct working end for posterior teeth? place the instrument to the most distal surface of the tooth the shank of the instrument is parallel to the long axis of the tooth is correct (up and over occlusal) if it is down and around the tooth, incorrect
how do you use the sickle scaler on posterior teeth? start at 90 to check working end tilt the lower shank instrument slightly towards the tooth
what surfaces do you not use your posterior sickle scaler on? buccal or lingual only distal or mesial
what is the correct tooth blade angulation that is used with the 204S sickle scaler? 70-80
where do you find supergingival calculus usually on posterior teeth? buccals of maxillary molars because of salivary glands
which part of the working end should be adapted and remain in contact with the tooth surface during scaling with the SH6/79 sickle scaler? tip third of the blade
which of the following best describes the correct scaling stroke used with sickle scalers? overlapping, vertical, oblique
the cross section of the curved sickle scaler is triangular and has two cutting edges (T/F) true
the triangular and two cutting edge of curved sickle scalers allows the clinician to place the instrument into the sulcus without trauma to the gingiva (T/F) false
assessment stroke definition instrument that will be used on every patient to evaluate the tooth or health of the periodontal ligaments
back of instrument definition the portion of the instrument working end that is opposite the face. sickle scalers have pointed backs and curets have rounded backs
what is a balanced instrument definition instrument in which the working end is aligned with the long axis of the handle when placed on lined paper the line will run down the middle of the handle and the middle of the working end
calculus removal stroke definition an instrument stroke used to remove calculus deposits
chisel instrument definition an instrument modeled after a carpenter's chisel intended for cutting or cleaving hard tissue. the cutting edge is beveled on 1 side only the shank may be straight or angled
Created by: Chobchi