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ME Path test 2

QuestionAnswer
define Abscess an accumulation of dead cells, dead bacteria, and dead and dying white blood cells
define acute inflammation most often limited in area and duration and is characterized by the cardinal signs of inflammation, can occasionally be very extensive and involve multiple body organs or systems
define adhesion (or pavementing), a process in which white blood cells stick to the walls of blood vessels before emigration through endothelium
define agranulocytes nongranular leukocytes. more active during the later stages of the acute inflammatory process, are longer-lived and much slower to respond to the direction of chemical mediators
define alternative pathway activation of the complement system through immune complexes or bacterial endotoxins
define alveolar osteitis dry socket
define angiogenesis creation of new blood vessels from endothelial cells
define bacteremia bacteria in the blood
define basophils a granular leukocyte with an irregular shaped, two-lobed nucleus. play a role in inflammation related to allergic reactions
define bradykinin powerful chemical mediator that causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and pain
what are the cardinal signs of inflammation redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor), loss of function (function laesa)
define cascade a series of events in which the product of the first event activates the second event and so on
define cellulitis an inflammation of the connective tissue
define chemical mediator chemicals produced by cells or microorganisms that activate, enhance, or terminate a physiologic action
define chemokine chemical mediator
define chemotaxis movement of cells in response to chemical substances
define cicatrix a scar
define classic pathway activation of the complement system by means of an antigen/antibody complex
define clotting system cascade that results in production of a blood clot to stop blood flow
define complement system cascade that results in formation of chemical mediators or the membrane attack complex
define cytokines produced by macrophages and some types of lymphocytes
define edema large amount of exudates in the tissues
define emigration movement of WBC'S between the endothelial cells in vessel walls out into surrounding tissues
define endothemlium layer of flat cells lining the blood vessels, lymph vessels, and heart
define eosinophils play a role in inflammation related to allergic reactions, also active in fighting off parasitic infections especially of the helminthic (tapeworm) type
define epithelization when epithelial cells from the lower layer of the epithelium at the edges of the wound start to slide down and across the wound surface beneath the scab
define exudate fluid that comes form the blood vessels into the injured tissue
define fibroblasts immature connective tissue cell that can differentiate into cells that produce collagen and other tissues
define fibrous repair results in the creation of a cicatrix that may recreate normal or near-normal tissue formation or architecture but not normal function
define fistula an abnormal passage from one epithelial surface to another
define giant cell large cell formed by the joining of several macrophages
define granulation tissue very fragile vascular tissue
define granulocyte a class of leukocytes which includes polymorphonuclear neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
define granuloma persistent area of inflammation in which offending agent can't be removed
define granulomatous inflammation a subset of chronic inflammation and is characterized by the formation of granulomas
define histamine chemical indicator
define hyperemia presence of increases amount of blood in a body part or organ
define immunoglobulins natural antibodies produced by plasma cells
define interleukin has numerous effects during all stages of the inflammatory process, produces fever, increases the need for sleep, and decreases the appetite, also increases leukocyte adherence, prostaglandin synthesis, and fibroblast production.
define keloid a hypertrophic scar, due to excess scar formation
define kinin system cascade that produces chemical mediators such as bradykinin
define leukocyte white blood cells
define leukocytosis an increase in the number of white cells in the blood, a systemic effect of inflammation
define leukotriene synthesized by all types of leukocytes & mast cells, increase vascular permeability & act as chemotactic agents to bring inflammatory cells into area, responsible for sustained effects of vasodilatation & vascular permeability in later stages of inflamm.
define lipopolysaccharide a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, chemical mediator that is associated with the chronic inflammation seen in periodontal disease
define lymphadenopathy enlargement of lymph nodes
define lymphocytes leukocytes found in lymph system
define lysosome organelles that contain strong digestive enzymes which are associated with the digestion or elimination of phagocytized foreign matter
define lysosomal enzymes strong digestive enzymes that are associated with the digestion or elimination of phagocytized foreign matter
define macrophage removes dead and dying cells, damaged tissues, inhaled particles, and foreign bodies, primary defense against some microorganisms, processing of antigens for presentation to T cells
define margination leukocytes move toward the endothelial cells of a blood vessel at site of injury
define mast cell granular cell, located near epithelial surfaces and the surfaces of blood vessels; releases histamine
define membrane attack complex the end product of the complete system cascade, it actually punches a hole in the cell membrane of microbes that are targeted for destruction by the immune system
define microcirculation circulation within small blood vessels including arterioles, capillaries, venules
define monocyte circulate within the bloodstream until they enter a specific tissue and become “fixed”
define motile phagocytes can move independently within the tissues and carry out the process of phagocytosis of whatever material they are sent to eliminate
define opsonins substances that enable WBC's to phagocytize resistant bacteria and other substances
define opsonization bacteria targeted to enable phagocytosis
define pavementing(or adhesion) a process in which white blood cells stick to walls of blood vessels before emigration through endothelium
define permeable (permeability) causes gaps in vessel wall between endothelial cells, begins process of exudates formation and vascular stasis
define phagocytosis process of ingestion and digestion by cells of solid substance (bacteria, foreign matter)
define phagosome vacuole that is formed when a phagocytic cell engulfs foreign matter
define plasma cells B lymphocytes involved in synthesis, storage, release of antibodies
define plasma fluid fluid portion of blood
define platelet activating factor chem. mediator causes aggregation of platelets - derived from the cell membranes of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells
define polymorphonuclear neutrophils
define prostaglandin cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, an increased feelings of pain, they also cause bronchoconstriction and smooth muscle contraction and play a part in evating body temperature
define pyogenic pus producing organisms
define pyrexia fever, hallmark of systemic involvement
define pyrogen chemical agents that cause pyrexia
define regeneration the body's attempt to restore itself to it's original state
define repair healing of the area
define resolution reversal of the inflammatory process with a return to normal
define septicemia blood poisoning
define serotonin preformed chemical mediator released from platelets in response to platelet-activating factor, increases vascular permeability
define serous exudates exudates that are thin, clear, have few cells. leaks from cells into tissues.
define immunoglobulin natural antibodies produced by plasma cells
define tumor necrosis factor has effects on all stages of inflammatory process, produces fever, increases need for sleep, decreases appetite, increases leukocyte adherence, prostaglandin synthesis, fibroblast production.
define vascular stasis slowing of the blood through the vessels in the affected area
define vasoconstriction decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
define vasodilation increase in diameter of the blood vessels
define active immunity occurs when antibodies are produced by body in response to antigen
define anaphylactic reaction type I hypersensitivity, plasma cells produce IgE in response to antigen (ex. bee sting, peanuts, latex). (either sever systemic or less severe localized)
define antibody molecule that will react against one or more specific types of antigen. immunoglobulin produced by B-lymphocytes
define antigen agent that triggers the immune response
define antigen binding fragment (Fab) part of antibody that combines with/to an antigen
define antigen-presenting cell (APC) cells (ex. macrophage) able to bring an antigenic substance to a lymphocyte to activate lymphocyte for that antigen
define atopic reaction type I hypersensitivity, includes skin reactions, asthma, upper respiratory manifestations
define autoimmune disease immune system dysfunction where it produces antibodies against the body's own cells
define cell-mediated reactions type IV hypersens. medicated by cells of immune system not antibodies. involves specific T-cells that have been sensitized to a particular antigen
define contact dermatitis result of T-lymphocytes reacting with antigen after skin contact, one of most common forms of type IV hypersensitivity
define cytokines complex system of chemical molecules produced by immune cells, modulates/regulates how system responds to stimulus
define cytotoxic reaction type II hypersensitivity. tissue cells become antigens and immune system attacks them
define graft-versus-host reaction results from immune response to major histocompatibility complexes that are present on surface of cells in donor/recipient tissue
define hapten small molecule, must combine with larger protein molecule for immune system to initiate production of antibodies against it (ex. poison ivy oil, penicillin)
define immune complex-mediated reaction type III hypersens. reaction, antigen-antibody complexes circulate in blood and are deposited in tissues where they initiate inflammatory response
define maculopapular skin reaction consists of flat colored areas and raised colored areas
define major histocompatibility complew (MHC) molecule on surface of cells (almost everyone with nucleus), identifies the cells. - aka human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
define memory cell B lymphocyte encoded with antigenic info so immune can produce antibodies next time sees same antigen
define natural killer cell T lymphocyte, destroys viral infected cells, tumor cells, doesn't need activation to recognize antigens
define nonspecific (natural/innate) immunity defenses are nonspecific, doesn't need previous exposure to offending agent to neutralize it
define opportunistic infection infection caused by normally non-pathogenic organisms in an immunocompromised patient
define passive immunity immunity obtains from receiving preforms immunoglobulins across the placenta, from breast milk, or by injection
define primary immune response immune response that occurs on the first exposure to an antigen
define primary immune deficiency congenital or inherited abnormalities in immune system that cause it to function less efficiently
define secondary immune response occurs on second and subsequent exposures to an antigen
define secondary immune deficiency acquired later in life; may be result of infection, malignancies, immunosuppressant drug therapy, other causes
define self-tolerance ability of body's cells to recognize it's own cells
define specific (acquired) immunity acts against previously encountered agents with antibodies & activated lymphocytes specific for it
define target cells cell that has receptors for specific hormones or substances located on it's cell membrane
define T cytotoxic cell T lymphocyte that has ability to destroy cells that is has been activated against. (ex. cancer cells, virus infected cells, normal cells body didn't recognize). activated by T helper or macrophage
define T helper cell T lymphocytes that enhance response of other B and T cells
define Waldeyer's ring ring of oropharyngeal lymph tissue comprising the lingual and palatine tonsils, and the pharyngeal tonsil or adenoid
Created by: mnerion