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Biology

TermDefinition
Triglyceride A fat with three fatty acid tails.
Carbohydrates Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Saturated fatty acids Fatty acid that contains no carbon–carbon double bonds.
Monosaccharides Simple sugar; monomer of polysaccharides.
Unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acid that has one or more carbon–carbon double bonds in its tail.
Metabolism All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules.
Lipids Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound.
Amino acid Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins. Consists of a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom.
Functional groups A group of atoms bonded to a carbon of an organic compound; imparts a specific chemical property to the molecule.
Fatty acids Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end. Carbon chain of saturated types has single bonds only; that of unsaturated types has one or more double bonds.
Polymers Molecule that consists of multiple monomers.
Monomers Molecules that are subunits of polymers.
Nucleic acids Single- or double-stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar–phosphate bonds; for example, DNA, RNA.
Disaccharides Polymer of two sugar subunits.
Fatty acid Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end. Carbon chain of saturated types has single bonds only; that of unsaturated types has one or more double bonds.
Starch Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in plant cells.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits; consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix.
Nucleotides Monomer of nucleic acids; has a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups.
Phospholipids A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails; main constituent of eukaryotic cell membranes.
Proteins Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptides).
Polysaccharides Polymer of many monosaccharides.
Glycogen Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in animal cells.
Carbohydrate Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Cellulose Polysaccharide; major structural material in plants.
Triglycerides A fat with three fatty acid tails.
Enzymes Compound (usually a protein) that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it.
Amino acids Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins. Consists of a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom.
Triglyceride A fat with three fatty acid tails.
Elements A pure substance that consists only of atoms with the same number of protons.
Molecule Group of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds.
Hydrophobic Describes a substance that resists dissolving in water.
Salts Ionic compound that releases ions other than H+ and OH– when it dissolves in water.
Isotopes Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry.
Covalent bond Chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Ions Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons.
Hydrophilic Describes a substance that dissolves easily in water.
Chemical bond An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact.
Hypothesis Testable explanation of a natural phenomenon.
Control group In an experiment, a group of individuals who are not exposed to the independent variable being tested.
Experimental group In an experiment, a group of individuals who are exposed to an independent variable.
Independent variable Variable that is controlled by an experimenter in order to explore its relationship to a dependent variable.
Eukaryotes Organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus.
Lysosomes Enzyme-filled vesicle that functions in intracellular digestion.
Plasma membrane A cell's outermost membrane.
Golgi body Organelle that modifies polypeptides and lipids; also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles.
Ribosomes Organelle of protein synthesis. Protein assembly sites and are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.
Cell wall Semirigid but permeable structure that surrounds the plasma membrane of some cells.
Chloroplasts Organelle of photosynthesis in the cells of plants and many protists.
Nuclear envelope A double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus. Pores in the membrane control which substances can cross.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids; rough ER modifies polypeptides made by ribosomes on its surface.
Centriole Barrel-shaped organelle from which microtubules grow.
Plasmids Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archaea.
Vacuoles A fluid-filled organelle that isolates or disposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials.
Mitochondrion Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
Nucleoids Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated inside a bacterium or archaeon.
Mitochondria Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
Gap junctions Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells.
Nucleus Organelle with two membranes that holds a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
Vesicles Small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents.
Cytoplasm Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.
Nucleoi In a cell nucleus, a dense, irregularly shaped region where ribosomal subunits are assembled.
Critical Thinking All research involves?
Observe, Research, hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment Steps of the scientific method
Larger To get the best sample results, sample a ____ group size.
Small Sampling errors most occur when sampling sizes are too ______.
Atom The smallest unit of matter.
Chemical Properties Elements are arranged based on their______.
Full An element is considered stable when the outermost level is ______.
Ion An atom with an unequal set of protons and electrons is called an ____.
Salt What is an example of an ionic bond?
Covalent Bond What is a bond that holds two or more atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons?
Polar bond _____ is formed when two or more atoms share electrons unequally?
Nonpolar bond What bond is formed when two or more atoms share electrons equally?
Water What is an example of a polar bond?
Polar Most covalent bonds are polar.
polar, nonpolar ____ substances are hydrophilic (salutes). ____ substances are hydrophobic (nonsalutes).
Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon Most abundant elements in living things.
Simple Sugars ______ are the base unit for carbs?
Fatty acids _____ are lipids that are non-polar and aren't solvable in water.
Amino acids What are the building blocks of protein?
Nucleotides _____ forms the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA and are also called monomers. (building blocks of larger molecules)
Monomers What can be joined to form polymers that can then be broken down to release energy?
Metabolism ______ is also referred to as cellular activity.
Enzymes What are special proteins that act as catalysts and speed up chemical reactions but remain unchanged.
Carbohydrates _____ are organic compounds made of carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen?
Monosaccharides Simple sugars with one sugar unit that are salutes and the simplest carbs.
Ribose Monosaccharide that is the building blocks for nucleic acids and has a 5 carbon backbone.
Glucose Monosaccaride found in plants is used by cells for instant energy and has a 6 carbon backbone.
Disaccharides Most plentiful sugar found in nature and has 2 sugar units.
Lactose _____ is a disaccharide found in diary?
Polysaccharide ____ has many sugar units? sticky and help cells attach to surfaces.
Starch _____ is a polysaccharide and used by plants as a storage of energy?
Glycogen ______ is a pollysaccaride used by animals to store energy?
Unsaturated Fatty Acids What are liquids(oils) at room temperature because they have one or more double bonds?
Saturated Fatty Acids What has only single bonds and are solids at room temperature?
Triglycerides (butter, lard, oils) Body's most abundant and richest source of energy and insulation?
Compound A substance in which the relative percentages of 2 or more elements never vary.
Cohesion _____ is especially important in pulling water through plants.
DNA Has the instructions to make proteins?
Plasma membrane, nucleus/nucleod region, cytoplasm what 3 features do all cells have in common?
Plasma membrane This separates each cell from the environment, permits the flow of molecules, and contains receptors.
Nucleus or Nucleod region This region contains hereditary material, which can be copied and read.
Cytoplasm Contains membrane systems, particles(including ribosomes,filaments,and semi-fluid substance.
Prokaryotic cells The smallest known cells and are the most metabolically diverse forms of life on earth. (bacteria) Contain cell walls
Nuclear envelope Encloses the semi-fluid interior of the nucleus. Outer surface is studded with ribosomes.
Chromatin refers to the cells total collection of DNA and associated proteins. Looks grainy in the cytoplasm
Rough ER Consists of stacked, flattened sacs with many ribosomes attached. Oligosaccharide groups are attached to polypeptides as they pass through.
Smooth ER An are from which vesicle carrying proteins and lipids are budded; also inactivates harmful chemicals.
Golgi body Arranged in stacks of flattened sacs whose edges break away as vesticles.
Golgi Body In the ______ proteins and lipids undergo final processing, sorting, and processing.
Lysosome (garbage collector) Vesticles that bud from the Golgi body; carry powerful enzymes that can digest the contents of other vesticles, worn-out cell parts, or bacteria and foreign particles.
Mitochondria Primary job is to transfer the energy in carbs to ATP.
Mitochondria Like bacteria this cell structure has its own DNA and divide on their own apart from the cell. They have ribosomes.
Eukaryotic plant cells are _________?
plasma membranes Animal cells do not have cell walls they have ______ . Everything else has cell walls.
Central Vacuoles These store amino acids, sugars, ions, and wastes.
plasmodesmata In plants, tiny channels called ______ cross adjacent primary walls and connect the cytoplasm.
Gap Junctions In animals, ________ are small, open channels that directly link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Created by: Thorske