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BIO104 - CH2

Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass: solid, liquid, gas
Element basic building blocks of matter; can't be broken down by chemical means
Atom Smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical and physical properties of the element
Subatomic particles that make up an atom Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Which subatomic particle(s) reside in the nucleus? Protons and Neutrons
Which subatomic particle(s) move about the nucleus? Electrons
Electron shell Circle around the nucleus of the atom
Atomic Number All atoms of a an element have the same number of protons. Since the atoms ate electronically neutral, it also tells you the number of electrons. Represented as the bottom number in atom.
Mass Number Sum of Protons and Neutrons
Mass of Protons and Neutrons 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) each
Mass of Electrons 0 AMU
Atomic Mass Is the average of AMU for all Isotopes and is the top number represented in atom.
Isotopes Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Their Mass Numbers are different. Subtract atomic number from mass to find number of neutrons.
Radioisotope An atom that when decays releases various types of energy in form of rays and subatomic particles.
Molecule Atoms that bound with another to forma a chemical unit. Atoms can be the same or different.
Compound A molecules made up of different atoms.
Stable Atom Atoms with more than one shell are most stable when the outer shell contains eight electrons.
Ionic bonding Atoms give up or take on an electron or electrons to make a stable outer shell.
Ions Particles that carry either a positive or negative charge. Ion carries a positive charge if more protons; negative charge if more electrons.
Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons.
Covalent - Single bonding Atoms share only a pair of electrons
Covalent - Double and Triple Bonding Atoms share 2 pairs of electrons (double) and 3 pairs (triple).
Polar molecule Has a slightly negative and slightly positive charge between atoms
Hydrogen bond Attraction of a slightly positive, covalently bonded hydrogen to a slightly negative atom nearby. Represented by a dotted line.
Properties of water High Heat Capacity; High Heat of Evaporation; Solvent; Cohesive & Adhesive; Frozen Water is Less Dense than Liquid Water
Calorie Amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1degreeC.
How many calories of heat energy does it take to turn coldest water to ice? Loss off 80
How many calories of heat energy does it take to convert 1g of hottest water to gas? 540
Solution Contains dissolved substances
Solutes the dissolved substances in a solution
Hydrophilic Molecules that attract water
Hydrophobic Molecules that can't attract water. (Nonpolar)
Cohesion The ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding.
Adhesion Ability of water molecules to cling to other polar surfaces.
Acids Substances that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions (H+). The acidity depends on how fully it dissociates.
Bases Substances that either take up hydrogen (H+) or releases hydroxide ions (OH-).
PH Scale used to indicate acidity or basicity of a solution. Below 7 is acidic; above 7 is base and 7 is neutral.
Buffers Help keep the pH within normal limits because they are chemical or combinations of chemicals that take up excess hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions.
Categories of Organic Molecules Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Organic A molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and usually associated with living organisms.
Macromolecule a molecule that contains many subunits
Dehydration reaction When a cell constructs a macromolecule by removing a OH (hydroxyl group) and an H (hydrogen atom) between subunits to make the marcro.
Hydrolysis Reaction When a cell breaks down a macromolecule by components of water are added during the breaking of a bond between the molecules. Add the water to break into subunits.
Carbohydrates Characterized by the presence of atomic grouping H-C-OH where ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2 to one. Function for quick short-term energy. CH2O
Simple carbohydrates A carbohydrate mad up of just one ring and its carbon atoms is low ( 5 to 7). Monosaccharide and Disaccharide
Monosaccharide (Simple) 1 sugar - glucose
Disaccharide (Simple) 2 sugars connected by covalent bond - maltos
Complex carbohydrate (Polysaccharide) Contain many glucose units - long chain of sugar that can be straight or branched.
Types of Polysaccharide Storage and Structural
Storage Polysaccharide Stores food inside cell (form of energy), easy to break down into sugar units, example: starch and glycogen
Structural Polysaccharide Structural components for cell (not food), not easy to break down, example: cellulose and chitlin
Lipids Contain carbon, hydrogen and Oxygen (CHO)(and some have phosphorous (P)). Does not dissolve in water,used as energy modules found in cell membrane. oils, fats, steroids, phospholipids
Lipids (Fats) Usually animal origin, solid at room temperature, long-term energy storage, insulation from heat loss, cushions for organs
Lipids (oils) Plant origin, liquid at room temperature
Triglycerides (Fat) A type of fat that stores energy, structure made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Saturated fats Solid at room temperature because all the fatty acids in triglyceride have only a single bond (straight and easy to pack together).
Unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature because at least one of the fatty acids in the triglyceride has a double or triple bonding making it harder to pack together.
Atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries - fatty deposits called plaques form on the inside of blood vessels reducing blood flow and oxygen supply. Caused by saturated fat.
Trans Fat created artificially; hydrogens are on opposite sides of carbon, may be partially hydrogenated; not healthy
Polyunsaturated fat has many double bounds; corn, canola, safflower oil; healthy
Which fat is healthiest polyunsaturated
Which fat is unhealthiest Trans fat
Phospholipids (lipid) main components of membranes; forms a bilayer; structure: glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and phosphate group
Phospholipids arrangement in cell group polar head at surface, nonpolar tail at middle, tail to tail;
Steroid (lipid) Structure: 4 fused carbon rings; made of cholesterol; example: estrogen, testosterone, anabolic
Polypeptide formed when 3 or more amino acids are formed by peptide bounds
Created by: PFlynn



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