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Dental Anatomy 2

Dental Anatomy Test 2

QuestionAnswer
mastication means.. chewing
esthetics means... appearance
phonetics means... speech
periodontium is... supporting tissue, both hard and soft, of a tooth
what is a conical... most primitive type of tooth crown composed of a single cone or lobe
a tritubercular is... three lobed (cusped) tooth
how many lobes to mammalian teeth typically have four or more lobes
what is unique about mammal's teeth as far as roots go only animal which may display more than a single root per tooth
what is a lobe? primary devision of the tooth
what are lobes considered? only as anatomical divisions o a tooth often separated by distinguishable primary grooves
all anterior teeth are composed of ____ lobes four
what are the lobes of anterior teeth named? three labial lobes (mesiolabial, middle labial, and distolabial lobes) remaining encompasses the cingulum and is termed lingual lobe
mamelons are... slightly rounded incisal terminations of the labial lobes abraded away soon after eruption
how many lobes do premolars exhibit typically? four lobes three buccal and one lingual
what are the lobes named on premolars? mesiobuccal, middle buccal, distobuccal and lingual lobes
what is the one exception to premolar lobes? mandibular second premolar
how many lobes does the mandibular second premolar have? five lobes three on the buccal and two lingually located
what are the lingual lobes on the mandibular second premolar named? mesiolingual and distolingual lobes mesiobuccal, middle buccal, distobuccal
buccal surface of premolars normally displays lobe division in the form of mesio buccal and distobuccal developmental depression
what does the central groove serve as a separation of when viewing a premolar from the occlusal aspect? buccal lobes and the lingual lobes
what separates the two lingual lobes in the case of the mandibular second premolar lingual groove separates the two lingual lobes
how many lobes do maxillary molars have... four lobes two buccal and two lingual
what are the four lobes named in maxillary molars? mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual and distolingual lobes
what do molars not exhibit as in anterior and premolar teeth? no facial development depressions
what divides buccal from lingual lobes on the maxillary molars? central groove
what are the two lingual lobes separated by in permanent maxillary molars? distolingual groove
what are the two buccal lobes divided by in permanent maxillary molars? buccal groove
mandibular first molars have how many lobes five cusps and five lobes
what are the lobes named for mandibular first molars? mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual and distolingual lobes and distal lobe
what is the addition for mandibular first molar lobes? distal lobe
what separates lobes for the mandibular first molars? central groove, lingal groove, buccal groove and distobuccal groove
all other molars other than mandibular molars exhibit how many cusps and lobes four cusps and four lobes
what are the lobes named for all other mandibular molars? mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, and distolingual
what separates the lobes in all other mandibular molars? central, buccal and lingual developmental grooves
what is the curve of spee begins? begins at the tip of the canines and follows the buccal cusp tips of the premolars and molars posteriorly when viewed from their facial aspect
explain more of the curve of spee 2 dimensional and curves upward from anterior to posterior
what happens to the roots of teeth in the curve of spee? maxillary molar roots are inclined mesially mandibular molars roots are inclined distally
what must the curvature of the individual posterior teeth offset in the curve of spee? vertical long axis of the body occlusal surfaces must conform to this curve
what is the curve of wilson? medio-lateral surve of the occlusal plant of posterior teeth
explain more about the curve of wilson two dimensional but in a direction more or less at right angles to that of the curve of spee
what is the purpose of the curve of wilson? complement the paths of the condyles during movements of the mandible
what must happen so that the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth can conform to curve of wilson crowns of mandibular posterior teeth must incline to the lingual crowns of the maxillary posterior teeth must incline towards the buccal
what does the curve of wilson become? more deep posteriorly so that the molar's inclination is greater than that of the premolars
which molars have a deeper incline in the curve of wilson? molar's deeper than premolars
what happens to the cusps (buccal and lingual) in the curve of wilson? buccal cusps of mandibular molars and the lingual cusps of maxillary molars usually appear to be longer
what appears to be longer on mandibular molars in the curve of wilson? buccal cusps
what appears to be longer on maxillary molars in the curve of wilson? lingual cusps
what is compensating occlusal curvature or sphere of Monson three dimensional curvature of the occlusal plant combination of Curve of spee and curve of wilson
what is the curvature in sphere of Monson? concave for the mandibular arch convex for the maxillary arch
what is axial position entail? inclination of a tooth from the vertical axis normally described in the mesiodistal or faciolingual directions
how is axial position normally described? roots inclination crown normally inclined in the opposite direction
maxillary anterior teeth exhibit what axial position when considering the faciolingual dimension great inclination of the root towards the lingual
maxillary anterior teeth (INCISORS) exhibit what axial position when considering the mesiodistal direction roots incline very slightly towards the mesial
which roots of maxillary anterior teeth roots incline very slightly towards the mesial when considering the mesiodistal direction incisors
maxillary anterior teeth (CANINES) exhibit what axial position when considering mesiodistal direction root inclines towards the distal
which roots of maxillary anterior teeth roots incline towards the distal when considering the mesiodistal direction canines
what faciolingual and mesiodistal axial direction would maxillary anterior incisors have root greatly towards lingual, slightly towards mesial
what faciolingual and mesiodistal axial direction would maxillary anterior canines roots have root greatly towards lingual inclined towards distal
maxillary premolars axial position in the faciolingual dimension? root inclines are slightly towards the lingual
maxillary premolars axial position in the mesiodistal dimension? root inclines are slightly towards the distal
maxillary molars axial position in the faciolingual dimension? great lingual inclination
maxillary molars axial position in the mesiodistal dimension? moderate mesial inclination
mandibular anterior teeth both CANINES and INSISORS axial position in the faciolingual direction exhibit great lingual root inclinations
mandibular anterior teeth INCISORS axial position in the mesiodistal nearly straight or moor mesial root inclination
mandibular anterior teeth CANINES axial position in mesiodistal slight distal root inclination
mandibular anterior teeth CANINES would have what axial position for faciolingual and mesiodistal faciolingual root inclines greatly to lingual mesiodistally root inclines slight distak root inclination
mandibular anterior teeth INCISORS axial position for faciolingual and mesiodistal Faciolingual root inclines greatly to lingual mesiodistally root incline nearly straight or minor medial root inclination
mandibular premolars axial position mesiodistally? show some distal root inclination
mandibular premolars (FIRST PREMOLAR'S) axial position faciolingual root inclines slightly lingually
mandibular premolars (SECOND PREMOLAR'S) axial position faciolingual? root offset slightly buccally
second premolar's axial position mesiodistally and faciolingually? distal root inclination mesiodistally root offset slightly buccal
first premolar's axial position mesiodistally and faciolingually? distal root inclination mesiodistally root inclines slightly lingually
mandibular molars axial position buccal and distal root angulations moderate to great buccal and distal root angulations
geometric configuration of all the crown surfaces of the teeth (excluding incisal and occlusal) is placed in three categories... triangular, trapezoidal or rhomboidal
all permanent teeth when viewed from facial and lingual aspects in the mouth can be roughly described as trapezoidal
the incisal (occlusal) side in all permanent teeth when viewed from the facial and lingual aspects in the mouth form the what... base of the trapezoid
the cervical side of all permanent teeth in the mouth when viewed from the facial and lingual aspects form the what... shorter parallel side of the trapezoid
arrangement of these trapezoidal shaped crowns side by side in dental arches creates.. interproximal spaces between teeth contact areas between each pair of adjacent teeth
interproximal spaces are... between teeth
contact area is... between each pair of adjacent teeth places where the teeth actually do touch
anterior permanent teeth when viewed from their proximal surfaces, the crowns exhibit triangular shape
what teeth exhibit a triangular shape? anterior permanent teeth when viewed from their proximal surfaces
what forms the triangle on permanent anterior teeth? cervical is the base apex is the incisal
the apex of anterior permanent teeth serves the function of? wedge in tearing, biting and incising food materials
the base of anterior permanent teeth serves the function of? necessary strength for the crown to form
maxillary posterior teeth proximal surfaces are roughly... trapezoidal
what teeth form the trapezoidal shape? maxillary posterior teeth proximal surfaces
what forms the base for maxillary posterior teeth in the trapezoidal shape? cervical forms the base
what forms the sides constricting to the occlusal surfaces for maxillary posterior teeth in the trapezoidal shape? buccal and lingual sides
what is the function of trapezoidal shape in maxillary posterior teeth? forms a wedge shape which aids in the distribution of forces during mastication facilitates in the self cleaning process of teeth
mandibular posterior teeth from the proximal aspect form roughly what shape? rhomboidal with crowns inclined towards the lingual
what teeth forms the rhomboidal shape with crows inclined towards the lingual? mandibular posterior teeth
what does the rhomboidal shape for mandibular posterior teeth allow for? proper interlocking of the mandibular and maxillary posterior teeth during mastication
in a complete arch, each tooth touches or contacts.... two adjacent teeth
what is the exception to the rule of teeth touching two adjacent teeth in a complete arch most posterior tooth in the arch which only has a mesial to contact
where are contact areas normally located? mesial surface of one tooth and the distal surface of the tooth just anterior to it
what is the exception to contact areas normally located in teeth? central incisor contact each other at the midline mesial contacts mesial
where do central incisors contact each other? at the midline
what happens to contact areas with age increase in size with age
what is the broadening of contact areas due to? abrasion that occurs when the proximal surfaces of the teeth rub against each other
what is the end result of the abrasion that occurs when proximal surfaces of teeth rub against each other? mesiodistal length of the dental arches continuously becomes shorter and begin to move closer to the midline
what does proper location of contact areas aid in the dental arch? stabilizing the dental arch prevention of food material from slipping between the teeth
what is important for food flow in the mouth? inciso (occluso) cervical direction faciolingual direction
contact areas become more ____ located from ______ to _____ in each quadrant cervically located from anterior to posterior in each quadrant
on an individual tooth, the ______ contact area normally has a more ______ location than the ______ contact area the distal contact area normally has a more cervical location than the mesial contact area
which has a more cervical location on an individual tooth, distal contact area or medial contact area? distal contact area is more cervical
which has a more incisal contact area on an individual tooth, distal contact area or mesial contact area? mesial contact area is more incisal
the relative size of the contact areas _____ from _____ to ______ in each quadrant the relative size of the contact areas increases from anterior to posterior in each quadrat
_____ teeth have contact areas which are normally located to the ____ of center in the faciolingual dimension posterior teeth have contact areas which are normally located to the buccal of center in the faciolingual dimension
what is the interproximal space? triangular shaped area between adjacent teeth in the same arch cervical to the contact area best observed from the facial aspect
what is filling the interproximal space usually? gingival tissue interdental papilla
what forms the triangle of the interdental papilla? alveolar bone at its cervical base proximal surfaces of the adjacent teeth are it's sides contact area of the adjacent teeth are its apex
what is an embrasure? the open space between the proximal surfaces of two adjacent teeth in the same arch where they diverge facially or lingually, and incisally or cervically from the contact area
what are the two embrasure spaces named when viewing from the facial or lingual aspects? incisal (occlusal) embrasure cervical (gingival) embrasure
which embrasure space is usually larger? cervical or incisal? cervical embrasure is normally larger than the incisal embrasure
cervical embrasure usually corresponds to what? interproximal space
what two embrasure spaces are seen when viewing from the incisal or occlusal aspect? labial (buccal) embrasure lingual embrasure
when an imaginary line is drawn to bisect any embrasure space... the two portions should be approximately equal in size and shape or symmetrical
what are the physiological purposes for proper embrasure form spillway for the food material during mastication integral part of the self cleaning process of the teeth
improper embrasure form may result in lack of protection and cause... overstimulation of the periodontium and its potential breakdown
improper embrasure form may result in overprotection and cause... lack of stimulation of the periodontium also result in its breakdown
from the facial lingual aspect, what happens to the incisal embrasures? they increase in relative size from the anterior teeth towards the posterior
from the facial or lingual aspect, what happens to the cervical (gin vial) embrasures? decrease in relative size from anterior to posterior
from the incisal aspect, what happens to the labial and lingual embrasures? nearly equal in size in anterior teeth
from the occlusal aspect, what happens to the lingual embrasure? normally larger than the buccal embrasure in posterior teeth
when one side of an embrasure (tooth outline) has a certain contour, the other side... the other side of the embrasure will normally have a similar contour
contact area becomes more ____ located the farther posteriorly in the arch while the relative size of the cervical embrasure cervically decreases
where do the contact areas move in posterior teeth what happens to the lingual embrasures? farther to the buccal relatively smaller
line angles are what? line or angle created by the junction of two crown surfaces of a tooth
for any specific facial embrasure, they are normally located _____ to each other in the faciolingual dimension directly adjacent, not further labially
what is height of contour also know as? crest of curvature
what is height of contour/ height of curvature known as? greatst area of contour incise (occluso) cerivically on the facial and lingual surfaces best observed by viewing these surface outlines from proximal aspect
mesial and distal surfaces also have heights of contour normally located on... contact areas
if contour is excessive... the food flow will be deflected away from the gingiva and inadequate stimulation of these tissues may result in their breakdown
if contour is insufficient... does not provide adequate protection and overstimulation or insult to the gingival tissue may result in deterioration
what are the rules for facial surfaces of all anterior and posterior teeth height of contour located in the cervical third
what are the rules for lingual surfaces on anterior teeth height of contour? incisors and canines the height of contour is found in cervical third
what are the rules for lingual surfaces on posterior teeth height of contour? premolars and molars is located in the middle or occlusal third
what is the cervical line or cement-enamel junction line around the tooth where the enamel and the cementum meet it is a stable entity, only observable when not covered by soft tissue covers the anatomical crown from anatomical root
how is the gingival line and the cervical line different? gingival line is ever changing cervical line is stable entity
what is the gingival line or gingival margin or gingival crest? imaginary line which marks the level of termination of the nonattached soft tissue surrounding the tooth separates the clinical crown and root, always observable clinically
what is epithelial attachment? actual attachment of the soft tissue of the mouth to the tooth connection for the soft tissue
epithelial attachment has a tendency to migrate... apically during a person's lifetime
the epithelial attachment is normally found close to the... CEJ
where is epithelial attachment found in young people? old people? enamel in cervical third for young cementum of the root in older
the cervical line is normally curved (convex) or bulges towards what on the facial and lingual surfaces of the teeth? the apical on the facial and lingual surfaces of teeth
the cervical line is normally curved (convex) towards what on the mesial and distal surfaces of the teeth? incisal (occlusal)
the amount of depth of cervical line curvature on any individual tooth is... normally greater on the mesial as compared to the distal surface
cervical lines on adjacent proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth have approximately... the same depth of curvature
the depth of curvature on all surfaces is... greatest on central incisors decreases posteriorly
what is the marginal ridge mesial and distal terminations of the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and lingual surfaces on anterior teeth
where are marginal ridges normally bulkier? posterior teeth
the height of the marginal ridges of adjacent teeth in the same arch should be.... at the same level
which tooth has the longest and strongest root in both arches? canine
roots are normally widest towards the _____ and taper towards the ____ cervical area and taper towards the apex
anterior teeth and premolars normally have how many roots? single root EXCEPTION: MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR
how many roots does the maxillary first premolar have two root branches buccal and a lingual
maxillary molars have how many roots three roots one lingual and two buccal branches
mandibular molars normally have how many roots? two roots one mesial and one distal branch
tooth ___ and ___ are directly related form and function
when compared to the contact areas on tooth #24, those of tooth #29 are more facially located
the crest of curvature of the lingual surface of tooth #31 is located in the same third of the crown as the crest of curvature of the... lingual surface of tooth #12
of the following surfaces of permanent teeth, the height of contour is normally found in the middle third of the crown on the... lingual surfaces of maxillary premolars
facial and lingual surfaces of anteriors are what shape? trapezoidal
facial and lingual surfaces of posteriors are what shape? trapezoidal
proximal surfaces of maxillary posteriors are what shape? trapezoidal
proximal surfaces of anteriors are what shape? triangular
proximal surfaces of mandibular posteriors are what shape? rhomboidal
where are the crests of curvature on mesial surfaces of teeth contact areas
where are the crests of curvature on distal surfaces of teeth? contact areas
where are the crests of curvature on the facial surfaces of teeth? cervical third of every tooth
where are the crest of curvature of lingual surfaces on anteriors teeth? cervical third on cingulum
where are the crests of curvature of lingual surfaces on posterior teeth? middle or occlusal
what is the general rule for locating contact areas in their facial lingual relation for anterior teeth? centered
what is the general rule for locating contact areas in their facial lingual relation for posterior teeth? offset to the buccal
incisors (maxillary) inclination of roots towards the lingual and mesial
canine (maxillary) inclination of roots towards the lingual and distal
premolars (maxillary) inclination of roots towards the lingual and the distal
molars (maxillary) inclination of roots towards the lingual and the mesial
incisors roots (mandibular) inclination of the roots towards the lingual and mesial or straight
canine roots (mandibular) inclinations of the roots towards the lingual and distal
1st premolars (mandibular) inclinations of the roots towards the lingual and distal
2nd premolars (mandibular) inclinations of the roots towards the buccal and distal
molars (mandibular) inclinations of the roots towards the buccal and distal
crowns of maxillary teeth towards buccal
crowns of mandibular teeth towars lingual
as contact areas become more cervical... what increases and what decreases? incisal embrasures increase in size cervical embrasures decrease in size
as contact areas move farther to the facial (posterior) teeth what increases and what decreases? size of the facial embrasure decreases lingual embrasure increases
Created by: Chobchi