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AP Comp Gov

Chapter 1: Introduction

TermDefinition
regime the type of political system; tyrannies, 2-party democracies, parliamentary, etc
communication constant; creates interdependent economies; good and bad go across boarders
How we study politics? describe, explain, predict; need "conceptual frameworks" in order to understand
hypothesis NOT a definition (tautology); usually based on normative analysis; must be testable and changable
large "n" studies statistical studies; sufficient and variety of cases available, certainty
small "n" studies case studies; dive deeply into one or a few cases (this is what comp gov uses)
political system set of institutions and agencies concerned with formulating and implementing collective goals of the society or group within it
governments act as the policymakers of the poli system; decisions backed by legitimate coercion
structures specialized agencies used to carry out various roles of the government, such as formulating, implementing, eforcing policies; parliaments, courts, bureaucracies; policies reflect goals, agencies provide means
process functions distinctive activities necessary for policy to be made and implemented in any kind of poli system; interest articulation, interest aggrigation, policy making, policy implementation, adjudication
system functions determine if system will maintain or change; socialization, recruitment of eliete, communication; fundamental importance to poli system
political socialization families, schools, churches; structures that develop, reinforce, transform poli attitudes
political communication flow of info through society and thru various structures that make up the poli system
policy functions substative impacts on society, economy, culture thru outputs in implementation of poli process; includes regulation, extraction (taxes), distribution of benefits/services (wellfare, social security); outcomes result in new imputs - cyclical system
modern era began in 1989; fall of Berlin Wall, collapse marked beginning of the implosion of soviet satelite governments in eastern Europe
Potemkin village appearance of being something, but really isn't
comparative government: what and why? analyzing and seeking to explain how and why gov functions in domestic and intl environments; gives us global perspective, less ethnocentric, understand patterns
empirical analysis basis of scientific observation; statistical, numerical
normative analysis based on value judgements; more common in comp gov, people are unpredictable, hard to quantify
social clevages fault lines where people divide; class, gender, ethnicity, religion
systems anaylsis gov as core of poli system; role is the political outputs, ie making, implementing, adjudicating policy
support public support determines capacity of gov to function effectively; the greater the support the more a gov can do; known as imputs
structural-function analysis poli systems can be compared in terms of how well they perform functions essential to stability; those that make, implement, adjudicate rules most effectively = more stable
typology analysis classifying / analyzing a political system based on its structure and regime
democratic political systems "reconciliation systems," tries to accomidate as many as possible; ability to max public expression; rapid decisions hard
authoritarian political system keeps power in hands of one person or small group of people; very efficient; masses have little say; no checks/balances if dictator loses sight of original goals
historical analysis change tends to be incremental because people value stability; look for patterns, historical context
politics policies that help organize people, resolve disputes, maintain order, extract resources from people (winners/losers)
comparative politics systematic study of political outcomes through comparing different cases; what level? how many? form of data?
quantitative vs qualitative quantitative: emperical qualitative: normative
internal validity in context of that one case, it is correct
external validity proven through different cases that it is correct (draws from multiple sources)
deviant case study a case that exhibits characteristics that differ from a well-known pattern; ex: economically developed = democracy (India is deviant cs)
critical case study selected because provides a tough test of central hypothesis; if hypo true in this case, valid for all
comparative method examining smaller number of cases (like 3-8), comp method seeks to understand causes of dependent variable; in absence of large n quantitative, uses most similar or most different approach; measure, explain sim&diff among nations
most similar approach examine cases that share a number of common characteristics
most different approach opposite of most similar
causal theories involve independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables; if X, then Y
rational choice theory individual will act strategically/rationally to achieve goals & max interests; explain outcomes by looking at individual actors and their decisions; not used much, leaders aren't really rational, also ignores poli history
middle level theory most preferred comp method; focuses on specific features of the poli world, such as institutions, policies, classes of similar events (revolutions, elections)
structural approach explain poli outcomes by looking @ underlying economic, social, poli-institutional setting in a coutry
system environment illustrates interdependence of what happens in and between countries
interest articulation interest expressed by individuals or groups; voting, protests
interest aggregation demands combined into policy alternatives; legislature occurs in different committees; differences in bills go to "conference committees"
policy making occurs in executive branch
adjudication legal response to challenges or violations of policy
political recuitment selection of political elites (ie those who participate directly in government) for political activities and gov offices
elite recruitment political elites, aka people who are political leaders
political culture people's attitudes towards their gov and their role in the poli process; like it, adds to stability; reflects core values of people; revolves around people's identity: racial, linguistic, ethnic, religion
legitimacy country's citizens believe that their gov has the right to govern; 3 types: traditional, charismatic, rational/legal
traditional authority rests on belief that tradition should determine who should rule and how (ex: monarchy)
charismatic authority personality of leader or small group (ex: Napoleon)
rational-legal authority based on well-est. system w/laws and procedures (ex gov based on its constitution)
participation political culture also illustrated by how citizens participate; 3 types: pariticpants, subjects, parochials
participants involved as actual or potential participants in the political porcess
subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but don't vote or actively involve themselves in political life
parochials hardly award of government and politics; could be illiterates, rural people in remote areas, etc
political socialization process by which individuals learn politics and political culture; influenced by agents of socialization
agents of socalization primary = family; others include peer groups, schools, churches, employment, etc
consensual political culture citizens may disagree on some poli processes and policies, tend to agree on how decisions are to be made; accepts legitimacy of regime; usually result of cultural homogeneity
conflictional political culture citizens sharply divided on legitimacy of regime and solutions to major problems; impact gov's ability to rule; often result of cultural homogeneity
cultural homogeniety peoples who share similar beliefs and values (ex: Japan, Korea [esp North])
cultural heterogeniety presence of multiple identity groups; have beliefs that greatly differ from other identity groups in country; more threatening to social stability than when various beliefs are more spread across population
vertical social relations occur in hierarchical societies when political leaders have the right to impose their decisions on those at the bottom (ex: North Korea)
horizontal social relations emphasize equality and a role for many if not all in society, to help shape political and social decisions (ex: Euro socialist state)
individualistic poli culture discourages gov from implementing policies that protect groups or level the economic playing field
collectivistic poli culture tend to coincide w/gov programs aimed at benefiting large numbers of people
group welfare vs interest of individual individualistic pc vs collectivistic pc
relationship between society and authority vertical vs horizontal social relations
potential tradeoff between liberty and security strong state w/rules that penetrate into society in an effort to maintain order? value freedom from state action, state leaves most decisions to individual
legitimacy of poli system and leaders do citizens accept existing poli regime as having legitimacy? can they be trusted?
political community what poli unit does population identify with most? group vs national identity
trends in political culutre modernization, democratization, marketization, resurgence of ethnicity
modernization major trend, secularization, influences of science and globalization; encourages citizen participation, equality, disrupts traditional way of life; emphasis on post-material values
post-material values social equality, environmental protection, cultrual pluralism, self-expression; have the bread-and-butter basics of society, now want more moralistic stuff
resurgence of ethnicity formally suppressed, now demending equal treatment; clashes can occur, migration threaten life of host country
marketization greater acceptance of a free market economy
democratization reflects long-term response to modernity; gradually delegitimized nondemocratic ideologies
nation cultural element of a country; people psychologically bound to one another
state institutional or government element of a country
nation-state territorial unit controlled by a single state and governed by a single government
country can be synonymous w/nation or state
failed states state has lost ability to govern
characteristics of state STATE HAS MONOPOLY ON THE LEGITIMATE USE OF FORCE WITHIN A SOCIETY
3 major attributes of state sovereignty, legitimacy, autonomy
Created by: seniors14