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CLEP test Nat Sci

Natural Science questions for CLEP test

In plants, a growth response to the stimulus of light is called Tropisms
The principal water absorbing structure of a typical root is the Root hair cells
Light reactions of photosynthesis include those in which water is split into oxygen
In typical ecosystems, the producers are photosynthethic producers
If a living plant is placed in a hypotonic solution turgor pressure increases
Ribosomes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum consist of RNA which synthesises protein
According to Weismann's theory of continuity of the germ plasm Reproduction is accomplished not by somaplasm but by germ plasm
Cellular structures responsible for oxidizing food and converting energy to ATP are Mitochondria
Light reactions of photosynthesis include those in which water is split into oxygen
In typical ecosystems, the producers are photosynthethic producers
If a living plant is placed in a hypotonic solution turgor pressure increases
Ribosomes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum consist of RNA which synthesises protein
According to Weismann's theory of continuity of the germ plasm Reproduction is accomplished not by somaplasm but by germ plasm
Cellular structures responsible for oxidizing food and converting energy to ATP are Mitochondria
The enzyme-controlled breakdown of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions is called Fermentation
In plant reproduction, selected cells of the diploid, spore producting generation undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores
Plants produce carotene which animals convert to Vitamin A
Which nerve innervates the semicircular canals auditory nerve
Hormone that controls the rate of food conversion to energy Thyroxin
Stimulation by sympathic nervous system would result in The sympathic nervous system responds to emotional situations and creates reactions such as increased heart beat
The significance of mitosis is that there is a precise and equal distribution of chromatin and DNA to each daughter cell
Transfer of genetic information from one generation to another is accomplished by DNA
Mutations Sources of variations and continue to be handed down to future generations
Animalculists preformationists who believed in a preformation of the indiviual within the cell
Plankton free-floating microscopic plants and animals in a body of water
Commensalism Relationship between members of 2 species in which one benefits from the other without harming or benefiting the other
Blood returns to the heart from the lungs via the Pulmonary veins
Blood is supplied to the muscle of wall of the heart Coronary arteries branch from the aorta and carry blood to the heart muscle
Chemosynthethic An organism that obtains energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances
nondisjunction The failure of homologus chromosomes to separate in the anaphase
Xylem tissue inside the vascular cambium and is the primary water conducting tissue in vascular plants
Allergic reaction side effect of a antigen-antibody reaction
antigen Any substance that, when introduced into an animal body, stimulates the formation of an antibody
Antibodies A protein in the blood of animals that can render an antigen inactive
Paul Ehrlich studied the effects of chemicals on body tissue-chemotherapy
Cell division- mitosis Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase
Mitosis A qualitative division of the cell nucleus whereby each daughter cell receives the same identical chromosome content as the parent cell
mRNA messenger RNA- carries genetic information out of the cell nucleus
tRNA Protein synthesis carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell
Cell metabolism Ingestion, digestion, secretion,absorption,respiration,excretion,transportation,assimilation,regulation,synthesis,reproduction,irritablility,movement,bioluminescence
Photosynthesis process occurs within all plant cells which supply all of the carbohydrates used by both plants and animals. Water and oxygen are by products
chloroplasts cells that absorb light energy from the sun
cellular respiration The process by which the cell or organism gets energy for all of its activities
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis
Plastids store chlorophyll for use by chloroplasts
Lysosomes carryout digestive functions, stores digestive enzymes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes attached and is the transportation system of the cell
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Has ribosomes attached and also carries out cell transportation but mainly of necessary protein needed by the cell
Golgi Apparatus Manufacture, synthesize, store, and distribute hormone and enzyme materials needed by the cell
Peroxisomes Manufacture, store, and secrete oxidatiation enzmyes needed by the cell
Vacules storehouse for chemicals needed by the cell
Basal Bodies Structures that clean the cell
Cell wall A tough outer membrane that supports and protects the plant cell
Centrioles Rod-shaped structures responsible for animal cell reproduction
Nucleocleus The center of the nucleus that resembles a golf ball and houses all of the genes, chromosomes and their needed material
Chromosomes Hereditary structures that contain the genes which determine the hereditary information contained in the cell
Proteins Used by the cell to provide energy, maintenence, growth, and reproduction
amino acids Proteins broken down by protein degradation
Protein synthesis The process of combining amino acids to produce peptide chains to reconstruct proteins
Law of Dominance Every organism receives a trait from the mother and a trait from the father. One trait may have dominance and mask the recessive trait to keep it from showing in the offspring. Dominant traits are usually the darker, larger, or heavier of the two
Law of Segregation and recombinant Genes separate into single units at the time the egg and sperm unite. Each character links with a like character to form a gene. It is segregation that assures each parent contributes equally to the offspring
Law of Independent Assortment Each unit or character for a trait is independent distributed to link with a like gene to form another pair. There is no pattern to their separation and rejoining to form the genes for the potential offspring
Sutton's Law Genes are located on chromosomes. This law forms the basis for the study of genetics
Hardy -Weinberg Law Based on population studies, states that in a population at equilibrium, both genes and genotypic frequencies remain constant from generation to generation. Each trait whether recessive or dominant has an equal chance to exert its influence
Gene Part of a chromosome that codes for a certain hereditary trait
Chromosome A rod-shaped body formed in the genes found in the cell nucleus
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism or the set of genes that it possesses. This is always expressed in capital letters for dominance or small letters for recessive traits
Phenotype The outward visible appearance or expression of gene action. It is the heredity makeup of an organism that we see or measure
Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes bearing genes for the same characters
Mendel's Law of Genetics 1857 1. Law of Dominance 2. Law of Segregation and Recombinant 3. Law of Independent Assortment
Homozygous Trait An indentical pair of alleles on homologous chromosomes for any given trait
Heterozygous Trait A mixed pair of alleles on homologous chromosomes for any given trait
Hybrid Refers to an organism carrying unlike genes for certain traits. "Best of Both"
Mutation Sudden appearance of a new trait or variation which is inherited
Punnet's Square Method used to predict probable outcomes of a particular genetic cross
Precambrian era Unicellular organisms
Paleozoic Era Multicellular animals and fern-like plants originated
Mesozoic Era Birds, mammals, reptiles, and flowering plants orginated- Dinosaurs
Cenozoic Era Radiation of birds, mammals, reptiles, and flowering plants florished
Binomal Nomenclature Scientific classification of plants and animals
Levels of Classifications Kingdoms, phylum class, order, family,genus,species
Speciation organisms change to adapt to their enviroments and evolve into entirely different organisms
three types of energy activation energy, potential energy, kinetic energy
Activation energy energy necessary to start a reaction
Potential energy stored energy
Kinetic energy Energy matter possesses due to motion
Law of conservation of matter or energy under ordinary conditions, matter or energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can change into different forms
Periodic Law The property of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Atomic numbers The number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom
Periodic Table Vertical columns represent the chemical families. Horizontial rows represent the period or row
Kinetic Model All matter is composed of extremely small particles 2. Particles making up all matter are in constant motion 3. When these particles collide with each other or with walls of the container, there is no loss of energy
exothermic reaction A reaction that gives off energy
Endothermic reaction A reaction that absorbs energy
Decompostion Reaction Combustion
Acids Water solutions of acids conduct electricity, acids will react w/ metals 3. acids will react w/ bases resulting in both a loss of water and the leaving of a salt4. acids will react w/ carbonates to release carbon dioxide
bases Bases are conducters of electricity in strong solutions2. Bases react w/acids to neutralize each other form a salt & water
Electrolytic reaction Reactions that do not occur spontanously can be forced by an external supply of energy
Solution Formed by mixing a solute and a solvent
Law of Definite Composition A compound of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite ratio by weight
Scientific Law a statement that fits new facts, uses inductive and deductive reasoning, successfully predicts what is found in nature
Mechanical Energy produced by a machine that is a device for multiplying forces or changing the directions of forces
Law of Gravatation Any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart
Lenz's Law The direction of an induced current is always such that its magnetic field opposes the operation that causes it. Basis for generator design
Ohm's Law The current in a wire is proportional to the potential difference between the ends of the wire
Law of Reflection The angle of the incidence equals the angle of reflection- sunlight shows this law
Law of Refraction Light rays passing through a tranparent substance are bent or refracted; the thicker the substance will be. the incident ray and the refracted ray both lie on the same plane
Einstein's theory 1. motion in a straight line will have constant velocity. all other motion is judged from this frame of reference 2. The speed of light in empty space will always have the same value regardless of the motion of the source or the motion of the observer
Momentum momentum is the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity
Inertia The resistance an object has to change in its state of motion
Force Product of acceleration
Parallel Force When the forces on two opposite sides are equal. Thus this produces an action-reaction situation
Power Rate of doing work per unit of time
Conduction direct contact with another body and heat is transferred
Polarization traveling on one plane
Electrical circuit Energy is carried by this
Law of acceleration The amount of acceleration is directly proportional to the acting force and inversely proportional to mass. Acceleration is equal to the change in speed divided by the time interval
Friction The force that acts between materials moving past each other
Bernoulli's Law A moving stream of gas or liquid appears to exert less sideways pressure than if it were at rest
Archimedes Principle An immersed object is pushed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Buoyancy
Boyle's Law If the temperature of a gas remains constant, volume equals pressure. Inflating a tire
Charles' Law The volume of gas increases as its temperture increases, if the pressure stays the same. - increased volume on tires in warm weather
Hooke's Law The amount of stretch or compression, x, is directly proportional to the applied force. Elasticity
Newton's 1st Law- law of Inertia Every body remains at rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by forces from the outside
Newton's second law- Law of constant acceration The acceleration of an object increases as the amount of net force applied from outside the object increases
Newton's Third Law- Law of conservation of momentum To every action there is an equal and opposition reaction
Law of conservation of mechanical energy In the absence of friction, energy stored in a machine remains constant and work done on the machine
Hutton's theory Earth is gradually changing and will continue to change
Types of tides Semidiurnal- 2 tides each morning and evening 2. diurnal 1 tide each am and pm 3. mixed -varies
Nebular hypothesis Immanual Kant - Earth evolved from a rotating cloud of gases or nebula
Collision hypothesis Giant pieces of material broke away from the sun and became planets, triggered by a supernova
Stratification layers formed by the settling of rock and soil particles
Stratigraphic time scale scale used to measure time and date of events
Rock classifications Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Igneous rock rocks that were solidified or hardened from the cooling of molten materials- volanic rocks- granite, rhyolite, pumice, obsidian
Sedimentary rock formed normal earth tempertures and pressure from accumulation of weathered debris- breccia, sandstone, shale, and limestone
Metamorphic rock Rocks that have been transformed by pressure or chemicals. Garnet, graphite, turmaline, serpentine, marble, slate, and greiss
Cellular membranes are selectively permable
Biogenesis All life comes from pre-existing life
Autotrophic organisms Can synthesis their food from inorganic materials
Heterotrophic organisms Cannot synthesis their food from inorganic materials
Gibberellins and auxins growth producing substances found in plants
Biomass The total weight of photoplasm in a community
Fruit The matured ovary of a flower
Ventral root axioms motor nerve impulses travel along these from the central nervous system
Sensory impulses travel to the cns along dorsal roots
Constituents of an atom Protons = electrons , neutrons number signifies the different types of isotopes
The function of genes To direct cells to produce specific proteins
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Enzymes are specific to The raw materials worked on
pinocytosis cell drinking - engulfing particles and breaking them down
A nerve impulse A wave of depolarization passing along a nerve fiber
DNA consists of Adensine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
The father of botany Theophrastus
Priestly discovered oxygen
Copernicus heliocentric concept of the universe
Boyle study of chemistry
Newton The laws of motion
Colloidal particles scatter light, known as the Tyndall effect
Atoms The smallest particles possessing properties of elements
Photons tiny packages of energy that make up light
Color wavelengths of reflected light
Galvanometer used to measure electric current
transistor switches electricity on and off and amplifies weak electrical currents
supersaturated solutions are unstable
Ohm unit of electrical resistance
energy The ability to do work
Protons have a positive charge
Weight The force of gravity upon an object
proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus
radioactive decay may give off alpha, beta, and gamma rays
Homologous Structures Modified in various directions to meet different modes of life is adaptive radation
Isotonic solution a solution with an osmotic pressure equal to the reference solution
Humidity Has no effect on enzyme activity
Active transport occurs when cell membranes expend energy to transport ions and molecules in and out of cells
Cellular respiration combines oxygen and organic compounds to release energy, carbon dioxide, and water
Etiolation absence of light stimulate stim growth and results in the failure of chlorophyll synthesis
Thallophytes lack xylem and phleom
algae basic food in many food chains
e coli used in selected genetic -engineering activites
Created by: Erinlei



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