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Pathology test 1 ME

QuestionAnswer
a depressed lesion that doesn't extend through the epithelium abrasion/erosion
red colored erythematic
black macules, is a pigment from a restoration amalgam tattoo
variation of normal, not pathologic atypical
non-cancerous, less aggressive condition benign
elevated lesion, larger than 1cm, filled with clear fluid bulla
well-defined circumscribed
growing together, becoming one large lesion coalesced
movement of teeth toward each other convergent
ripples/washboard-like corrugated
covered with a scab, can also describe perioral lesions crusted
list of probable causes of a particular disease manifestation/group of manifestation differential diagnosis
when all suspected causes except one have been eliminated it becomes a... definitive diagnosis
movement of teeth away from each other divergent
from within the body endogenous
lesions that grow into surrounding tissue and present as palpable masses with or without noticeable swelling endophytic
from an outside source (outside the body) exogenous
lesions that grow outward from tissue surface exophytic
consisting of many deep crevices fissured
fluid filled lesion that moves fluid from one area to another when the lesion is pressed fluctuant
located in most of the tissues in one area (diffuse) generalized
the balance within the systems of the body homeostasis
hardening (of lymph nodes) indurated
wound or distinct area in with a pathologic change has taken place lesion
found in one area only (focal) localized
ENLARGED, indurated, sometimes tender lymph nodes lymphadenopathy
flat lesion, differentiated from surrounding tissue by color difference, less that 1 cm in diameter macule
cancerous, aggressive condition malignant
cancer of the pigment producing cells (melanocytes) melanoma
consists of both radiopaque and radiolucent areas mixed
radiolucent lesion made up of compartments (soap bubble appearance) multilocular
raised lesion, no fluid, less than 2 cm but more than 5 mm in diameter nodule
consists of finger-like projections papillary
raised lesion, no fluid, less than 5 mm papule
flat lesion, differentiated from surrounding tissue by color, more than 1 cm. OR area has different surface texture with or without color change patch
a stalk like base of a lesion pedunculated
broad, slightly raised, flat top, looks pasted on plaque
intraoral counterpart of a crust, is a false membrane that covers a lesion and can be wiped off pseudomembrane
pus purulent exudates
raised lesion, filled with pus/purulent exudates pustule
darker than the normal radiographic appearance of bone radiolucent
whiter than the normal radiographic appearance of bone radiopaque
destruction of the teeth's roots resorption
broad base of a lesion sessile
raised lesion, no fluid, more than 2 cm tumor
depressed lesion, extends through the epithelium into the dermis ulcer
a single radiopaque or radiolucent area unilocular
elevated lesion, 1 cm or less, filled with clear fluid vesicle
accumulation of dead cells, dead bacteria, and dead & dying WBC's abscess
cellular self destruction; cell nucleus disintegrates and cell falls apart. remnants digested by phagocytic cells and removed via the lymph system apoptosis
decrease in size and function of a cell, tissue, organ. caused by reduced functional demand, hormonal stimulation, nutrient supply (including O2), and/or normal process of aging atrophy
necrosis specific to lesions found in lungs of people with tuberculosis. lesions called tubercules, cells inside tubercule become necrotic and form cheese-like material caseous necrosis
occurs primarily when there's been cell hypoxia or ischemia (myocardial infarction), cardiac cells die and become firm and opaque coagulative necrosis
an additional disease process/condition occurring at the same time and resulting from conditions associated with the 1st disease process complication
creation of abnormal cells from normal cells, includes changes in size - shape - nuclear changes within - irregular arrangement within tissue dysplasia is mild, moderate, or severe
cause of the disease/pathologic entity etiology
worsening of a disease condition exacerbate
glands that excrete their products through a duct onto the surface of the skin or other organ exocrine system
highly reactive class of chemical that is generated by the cell during most of it's normal metabolic processes free radical
diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland usually resulting from a combination of hypertrophy and hyperplasia goiter
an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, results in enlargement of that part hyperplasia ex. gingival hyperplasia, hypercementosis
an enlargement of individual cells, increases size of tissue or organ. commonly caused by increased functional demand or hormonal stimulation hypertrophy ex. thyroid and muscle cells
lack of oxygen to the cells that inhibits/stops the production of energy within the cell hypoxia
of unknown cause, causative agent not yet discovered idiopathic
the time that a disease is developing but there are no overt signs or symptoms incubation period
skin, hair, nails, and sweat & sebaceous glands the integumentary system
a decreased supply of oxygen to a call ischemia
time during disease development - no overt manifestations of the disease, but it can be found by using other means (lab tests, radiographs) latent period
occurs when the body is dealing with a bacterial infection (especially by staphylococci and streptococci). WBC's destroy bacterial and host cells, area is walled off from healthy tissue, body unable to remove debris fast enough resulting in an abscess liquefactive necrosis
an observable/quantifiable characteristic associated with a specific type of pathology. including signs, symptoms, lab results, radiographs, ect.) manifestation
the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another metaplasia
the illness or disability associated with a disease morbidity
death, can occur as a consequence of a disease process mortality
cell death. cell unable to adapt to environment by nonlethal means. necrosis
new growth of cells, pathologic growth of cells, cell growth continues unchecked neoplasia
the manner in which a disease progresses pathogenis
the study of disease, or, the study of abnormal conditions that may result from: disease, traumatic injury, structural/biochemical errors, genetic abnormalities, ect. pathology
an estimate of the most likely outcome of a disease prognosis
a disease state that is brought on by conscious or subconscious reactions or attitudes psychogenic
flare-up of a disease, can occur weeks-months after the pathology was thought to be gone relapse
the natural ability of an organism to remain unaffected by pathogenic or toxic agents resistance
occurs when the affected person or body part returns to normal resolution
predisposing conditions risk factors
a condition or pathology that occurs as a result of that disease ex. burn - scar sequela
an objective observation usually made by a clinician, sometimes a patient, about clinical manifestations of the disease process sign
anything (physical or psychologic) that causes the body to initiate the stress response stress
conditions within or around the organism/host that don't inhibit the action of pathogenic agents susceptibility
a subjective report of what a patient is feeling (fatigue, headache, nausea, ect.) symptom
inadequate salivary flow xerostomia
define health a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
the role of healthcare provider has changed from dictator to... advisor and facilitator
patients are encouraged to... be dynamic partners in their healthcare
what are a hygienist's 3 roles? 1. tobacco cessation 2. OCS (let patient know) 3. annual blood sugar testing
define disease an interruption, cessation, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs.
periodontal infections have an impact on... heart disease, stroke, diabetes, respiratory disease, preterm low-birth weight babies
periodontal disease, oral cancer that metastasizes somewhere else in the body - are examples of... an oral disease with systemic affects
caries are an example of... an oral disease
primary cancer that metastasizes in the oral cavity, AIDS - are examples of... a systemic disease with oral effects
the prevention specialist of the dental team is the... hygienist
together the extraoral and intraoral exams make up the... oral cancer screening
all patients must be assessed for indications of medical/oral problems prior to initiating dental treatment. T or F? True
many conditions that are found in the oral cavity are referred to as... lesions
a wound or distinct area in which a pathologic change has occurred is a ... lesion
where is the most common location for extraoral cancer? lips
where is the most common location for intraoral cancer? later border and ventral surface of tongue. floor of mouth.
an extraoral exam is... assessment of all visible areas of skin, and the head & neck
when does the extraoral assessment being? as the patient enters the clinic, you observe their gait, posture, speech, ect.
there is no set sequence for exams, but you should do them the same way every time to avoid missing things
when recording a description of an abnormality there must be enough info to... provide another healthcare worker with enough info to decide whether or not it is resolving or worsening
numbness/tingling parasthesia
findings indicative of malignant conditions: -parasthesia -single area involved -ill-defined/ragged borders -flat, indurated, fixed lesions -altered PDL and/or lamina dura -mixed red & white, or velvety red lesions -lesions on: lateral borders tongue, soft -palate, floor of mouth, lip
radiographic findings indicative of malignant conditions: evidence of bone expansion, root erosion, displacement, or resorption
findings indicative to benign conditions: -nonulcerated lesions -bilateral -sharply demarcated borders -multiple areas involved -elevated, soft, moveable lesions -lesions have a direct cause & effect relationship
terms used to describe location of lesion: inferior, superior, lateral, medial, anterior, posterior, distal, mesial try to pick a fixed point of reference close to lesion to start description
describing distribution, size, and shape: -single vs multiple lesion -multiple distinct vs coalescing -sessile vs pedunculated -exophytic vs endophytic -ulcers vs erosions -indurated vs fluctuant -macule -vesicle -bulla -pustule -papule -nodule -tumor -plaque
white lesions that can't be wiped off... usually indicate excess keratin
indicated an inflammatory reaction erythematic
yellow indicated presence of... purulent exudates or adipose (generalized - jaundice)
brown, black, and blue pigments are usually... blue - varicosity, salivary glands brown & black - foreign bodies, amalgam tattoo
the most common symptoms associated with bone lesions are... pain and parasthesia
describing lesions with radiographic terms: radiopaque - radiolucent - mixed unilocular - multilocular well defined - ill defined borders localized - generalized resorption - convergence - divergence
process of creating a differential diagnosis: describe abnormality, list similar ones, scrub list with info (meds, conditions, age), rank according to probability, order and perform tests/biopsy/x-rays ect describe, list, question, final list, refine list
what is the gold standard of diagnosis? excisional biopsy or partially excisional biopsy
factors of disease process: -causes/etiology -events/characteristics that make certain people more susceptible/resistant -pathogenesis -possible manifestations on a cellular, tissue, or organ basis
the first element in the development of disease/pathology is the... causative factor/etiology
can be a single cause as in tuberculosis or multifactorial etiology as in hypertension or heart disease
if there is more than one causative factor it's called a... multifactorial etiology
multifactorial etiologies usually have a combo of... extrinsic (ex. trauma, breaks cause of osteoporosis) and intrinsic (ex. osteoporosis) features
conditions that can be passed on through genetics are hereditary
high resistance means low susceptibility
low resistance means high susceptibility
resistance is affected by... risk factors/predisposed conditions (risk factors decrease resistance increases)
certain people are at a higher risk of developing a disease based on genetic predisposal (ex. alcoholism, sickle cell anemia, tay-sachs affects jews more)
a deficit in any part of the immune system will cause a decrease in the resistance of the host, called... immune system disfunction (ex. leukemia, born without WBC's)
the first line of defense includes the integumentary system (skin), exocrine system (stomach acid, salivary glands)
a compromised first line of defense leads to increased susceptibility of the host (ex. damaged salivary glands - xerostomia, burns - damaged skin)
the body is less able to adapt to physical, biologic, and mental stresses at... the beginning of life and later years
if a person is compromised by one disease/condition they are at a higher risk of developing a 2nd disease/condition
the more risk factors involved, the higher the potential for developing a disease/condition synergistic effect (2+2=5)
resistance is affected by what risk factors? genetics, immune system dysfunction, compromised first line of defense, age, lifestyle, stress, environment, preexisting conditions, multiple risk factors
time in which the disease is developing but are no overt signs of symptoms incubation period
objective observation made by clinician sign (fever, low BP, rash)
subjective report of what patient is feeling symptom (fatigue, headache, nausea)
sign + symptom = manifestation
time during disease development when are no overt manifestations, but disease can be found with lab tests, radiographs, ect latent period
the manifestation of a disease starts with the cellular basis
disease affects: cells - tissues - organs - body
disease extent how many cells of the body are affected ex. jaundice
disease seriousness exactly which cells are affected ex. treatable hep A, liver cancer
changes inside the cell/area surrounding cell as a result of normal or pathologic process, damage is reversible is normal conditions are reestablished cellular adaptation ex. pregnancy, callous
forms of cellular adaptation: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, intracellular retention of substances
once dysplasia has reached severe the cell is close to neoplasia
can neoplasia reverse? no, is not adaption
dysplasia cells resemble in appearance cancer cells
cells that retain/store certain substances that are either normally present in smaller quantities or are pathologic. can return to normal. intracellular retention of substances. ex. amalgam tattoos, pencil lead
occurs if there is persistent/chronic damage or if cell is no longer able to adapt to changes reversible cellular injury
reversible cellular injury most commonly results from... free radical injury, hypoxic injury, impairment of calcium balance within cell
lose how many cells a day, shed by the skin 10 billion
in reversible cell injury the cell... starts to die but early death is reversible. can have scarring, loss of function.
Created by: mnerion