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Biology Ch. 2

The chemical context of life

An Not
Co Together
Electro Electricity
Iso Equal
Neutr Neither
Pro Before
Anion A negatively charged ion
Atomic mass The total mass of an atom, which is the mass in grams of one mole of the atom
Atomic nucleus an atoms central core, containing protons and neutrons
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol
Cation An ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons
Chemical bond An attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outershell electrons for the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gIN complete outer electron shells
Chemical equilibrium in a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
Chemical reaction A process leading to chemical changes in matter; involves the making and or breaking of chemical bonds
Compound A substance consisting of two were more elements in a fixed ratio
Covalent bonds A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Electron A subatomic particle with a single negative charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom
Electron shell And energy level represented as the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
Electronegativity The attraction of and atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
Element Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
Energy The capacity to do work or to move matter against an opposing force
Hydrogen bond A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atoms of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of the polar covalent bond in another molecule
Ion And atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge
Ionic bond A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic compound A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt
Isotope One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass
Mass number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
Molecular formula A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Neutron An electrically neutral article having no electrical charge. Found in the nucleus of an atom
Nonpolar covalent bond A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
Orbital The three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
Polar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms that differ in a electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atoms, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
Potential energy The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
Product And ending material in a chemical reaction
Proton A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge found in the nucleus of an atom
Radioactive isotope And isotope that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy
Reactant A starting material in a chemical reaction
Salt A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called ionic compound
Structural formula A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
Trace elements An element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts
Valence The bonding capacity of an atom, generally equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the atoms outermost shell
Valence electron An electron in the outermost electron shell
Valence shell The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in chemical reactions of that atom
Compounds or molecules Matter is comprised of elements which maybe individual or combined in various ratios to form what?
Element What is something that cannot be further broken down by just typical chemical reactions so once you go below the level of matter, you're dealing with subatomic particles
92 How many naturally occurring elements are there?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Most living organisms are made of just four elements, what are they?
Three An atom can be broken down into how many parts?
Protons What is found in the atomic nucleus and is positively charged?
Neutrons What is found in the atomic nucleus and is electrically neutral?
Electrons What is found surrounding the atomic nucleus in series of electron shells and is negatively charged?
Atomic number What is the number of protons in an atom?
Atomic number What is also the number of electrons in a neutral atom?
Atomic number Each element has a unique what?
Mass number What is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons?
Isotopes Varieties of the same element which have the same atomic number thus the same proton umber, but different mass numbers thus different numbers of neutrons, are called what?
Valence electrons What is in the outermost electron shell of an atom?
Valence electrons What are the only electrons involved in bonds with other Atoms?
Valence number What is the number of unpaired valence electrons that determines how many bonds and atom can form with other atoms?
Orbitals Electrons are found in certain areas 90% of the time called what?
1s The first electron shell has one S orbital labeled what?
2s and 2p The second electron shell has one S orbital named what, and 3 p orbitals named what?
2 How many electrons can each orbital maximally hold?
Two electrons The first shell can potentially hold a total of how many electrons?
Eight electrons The second shell can potentially hold a total of how many electrons?
Inert elements Elements that have complete valence shells and do not interact with other atoms are called what?
Covalent bonds What is it called when an atom can complete its valence shell by sharing electrons with other atoms?
Ions or charged atoms What is formed when an atom loses or gains electrons?
Polar covalent bonds What occurs between atoms that have different electronegativity values?
Electronegativity What is the measure of how strong an atom attracts shared electrons?
Nonpolar covalent bonds What occurs between atoms that have equal electronegativity values
Single covalent bond What is one pair of electrons shared between atoms called?
Double covalent bonds What is the sharing of two pairs of electrons between atoms called?
Molecular formulas What shows which element and how many are found a molecule?
Structural formulas What shows the physical arrangement of atoms in a molecule?
Ions What forms when electrons are transferred between atoms?
Anions Atoms that gain electrons and become negatively charged are called what?
Cations Atoms that lose electrons and become positively charged are called what?
Ionic bonds Anions and cations attract each other and form what?
Ionic compounds or salts What is formed between ions?
Hydrogen bonds What are weak transient bonds formed between polar molecules due to slight positive and negative charges caused by polar covalent bonds within the molecules?
Reactants In a chemical reaction, the molecules entering the reaction while the products are formed after breaking the reactant molecules bonds and rearranging the atoms into new bonds are called what?
Atomic number What is the number of protons, unique to each atom, and is also equal to the number of electrons for neutral atoms (no pos or neg)?
Element If you change the number of protons, you change the?
Mass number What is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom?
Atomic mass The mass number is an approximation of what?
Five protons, six neutrons, five electrons Boron has an atomic number of five and a mass number of 11, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does boron have?
12 protons, 12 neutrons, 12 electrons Magnesium has an atomic number of 12 and a mass number of 24. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does magnesium have?
Isotopes Atoms of a given element may occur in different forms called what?
Neutrons in atomic nucleus Isotopes Will differ in the number of what?
Number of protons Isotopes will have the same number of what
The mass number The difference in the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an isotope, will change what?
Radioactive dating What is it called when isotopes are used to date biological samples?
Electronegativity What is the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons in a covalent bond called?
Higher The (blank) electronegativity, the stronger it pulls electrons towards itself
Nonpolar covalent bond Atoms have the same electronegativity, for example hydrogen and hydrogen
Polar covalent bond Atoms have different electronegativities and share electrons unequally, for example hydrogen and oxygen
Positive The hydrogen side of H2O has a partial (blank) charge?
Negative The oxygen side of H2O has a partial (blank) charge?
Ions Electron transfer between two atoms creates what?
Unequal and not neutral The number of protons and electrons in an ion will be what?
Ionic compounds Often called salts, and form crystals
Both involve charge differences, and both have positive and negative areas in an overall molecule What are the similarities between polar molecules and ionic compounds?
The types of bonds involved and the degree of charge strength, Polar is covalent bonds, ionic is ionic bonds What are the differences between polar molecules and ionic compounds?
Created by: SarahRupp22
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