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Bio101 Chpt 3

Campbell Biology101 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Cells

TermDefinition
Organic Compound Carbon-based molecules.
Hydrocarbons Carbon and hydrogen compounds.
Carbon Skeleton Chain of carbon atoms that vary in length, size, and shape.
Isomers Are compounds with the same formula but in a different structure.
Functional Groups Six chemical groups that are important in the chemistry of life.
Hydrophilic Water loving - soluble in water.
Macromolecule Large molecules
Polymers Macromolecules joining smaller molecules into chains; made up of smaller identical monomers.
Monomers Single unit building blocks of polymers.
Hydrolysis Means to break with water
Enzymes Special macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Carbohydrate Small sugar molecules like sugar or large polysaccharides like starch.
Monosaccharides Single unit sugars
Disaccharide Two monosaccharide monomers linked together by the dehydration reaction.
Polysaccharides Are many macromolecules linked together by the dehydration reaction.
Starch A storage polysaccharide in plants; a polymer of glucose.
Glycogen An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in liver and muscle cells; the animal equivalent of starch.
Cellulose A polysaacharide of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers; these molecules are linked into cable-like fibrils.
Chitin A structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
Lipids Diverse compounds that are grouped together because they share one trait: they do not mix well with water.
Hydrophobic Lipids are this; water fearing.
Fat Large lipids made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids.
Phospholipds The major component of cell membranes.
Steroids Lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains four fused rings.
Cholesterol A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids, such as hormones.
Protein A polymer of amino acids.
Amino Acids Contains an amino group and carboxyl group.
Peptide Bond The covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction.
Polypeptide A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Denaturation A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function.
Primary Structure A proteins linear sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Structure A proteins alpha helix and beta pleated sheet formed by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone.
Tertiary Structure A proteins three-dimensional shape formed by interactions between R groups.
Quaternary Structure Fourth level of a protein that contains multiple polypeptides.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
Nucleic Acids A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins.
Ribonucleic Acids A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar.
Nucleotides A building block of nucleic acids, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups.
Created by: dtgs2010