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Chem. control method

Test #3

QuestionAnswer
What do phenol/phenol derivatives do? Denature proteins and disrupt membrane
Phenol first antiseptic/disinfectant; used as an aqueous solution; good against mycobacterium
Cresols disinfectant; highly concentrated milky looking emulsion; ex. original lysol
Hexachlorophene antiseptic; very powerful; bacteriostatic film at ppm doses; found to have caused brain damage in preterm infants
Triclosan antiseptic product with antibacterial activity found in some soaps and embedded in household items; found in sponges, cutting boards, toys, toothpaste
Phenol coefficient testing used as a standard to compare other disinfectants with; this has been replaced by other testing methods
What do biguanides do? disrupt membrane
Chlorhexidine a biguanide; replaced hexachlorophene because more effective and less toxic; kills G+ and G- bacteria, some fungi and viruses but not spores; microbiostatic film on skin surfaces; found in surgical scrubs and mouthwash
Which alcohol works best? isopropanol (rubbing alcohol); best as antiseptic/disinfectant
Tincture a solution in which the solvent is alcohol
What does a surfactant do? disrupt membrane and possibly denature protein; it decreases surface tension of liquids making them wetter and improving cleaning and penetrating ability of the product
Examples of quaternary ammonium compounds Zephiran (not really used anymore because not very effective); Cepacol
examples of halogens iodine and chlorine
What form of iodine is best to use on the skin? iodophors (organic derivatives)- much safer on the skin than 1% tincture
Bleach a chlorine; strongest and cheapest disinfectant
Compressed chlorine gas water treatment; may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons (carcinogenic) when polluted water is chlorinated; alternative is use chloramine- doesn't form carcinogens and is slower working
Oxidizing agents oxidize cell components and denature proteins; various chemicals that release free oxygen; ex. hydrogen peroxide and ozone
What is silver nitrate used for? clear aqueous solution (turns black in light); was used in the eyes of infants to prevent gonorrheal infection
Aldehydes inactivate proteins and nucleic acids; ex. formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde
Formaldehyde used as formalin; embalming fluid, vaccine production, gaseous sterilant
Glutaraldehyde used as 2% aqueous solution; capable of "cold sterilization" in 10 hours; requires activator and is only good for 2-3 weeks; requires sterile water rinse to get rid of left behind residue (toxic chemical)
Why must items treated with ethylene oxide be well aerated prior to use? needs to be aerated because it sticks to whatever is being treated and leaves behind a toxic residue; this residue can be irritatinga and carcinogenic
Which are effective products for controlling Mycobacterium? phenol, ethanol,bleach
What are useful products for eliminating endospores? bleach works fair against endospores
Created by: lisaanne11