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DTCC A&P II Test 2

Chapters 18 & 19 from pearson

QuestionAnswer
Cardiac output is ____? The amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute
What is the correct sequence of current flow through the heart wall? SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
During pulmonary circulation, blood leaves the ___? Right ventricle and moves to the lungs
During systemic circulation, blood leaves the ____?? Left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta
What is the sequence of blood flow through the chambers of the heart? Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle
The absolute refractory period refers to the time during which _____? The muscle cell is not in a position to respond to a stimulus of any strength.
The coronary arteries arise from the _____? Aorta
The endocardium is composed of what classification of cell type? Simple squamos epithelium
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the ___ Right atrium
The inner lining of the fibrous pericardium is formed by the ____? Parietal layer of the serous pericardium
The interventricular septum forms a dividing wall between the _____? Left and right ventricles
The normal pacemaker of the heart is the ___? SA node
The tricuspid valve is located between the ___? Right atrium and right ventricle
When the mitral valve closes, it prevents the backflow of blood from the _____. Left ventricle into the left atrium
What is the sequence of layers in the heart wall, starting from the outermost layer? Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What are the vessels that carry oxygen to the myocardium called? Coronary arteries
The cells of the myocardium behave as a single, coordinated unit known as a _____? functional synctium
The ability of some cardiac muscle cells to initiate their own depolarization and cause depolarization of the rest of the heart is called? Automaticity
During gestation what does the human heart develop from? Mesoderm
What structure lies on the outside surface of the heart and is an integral part of the cardiac wall? The epicardium
the trabeculae carneae are located where? The ventricles
What part of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump? The left ventricle
The _______ are attached to the AV valve flaps. Chordae tendineae
What valve is most often faulty in the heart? The mitral, or bicuspid, valve
What factor gives the myocardium its high resistance to fatigue? The large number of mitochondria in the cytoplasm.
What nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to the sinoatrial (SA) node? The vagus
An enlarged R wave on an ECG would be indicative of what? An enlarged ventricle
The lining of the heart chambers is called the? Endocardium
The superior chambers of the heart are called the? Atria
Freshly oxygenated blood is delivered to the _____ and then passes into the _____ to be pumped to the entire body Left atrium; left ventricle
Into which chamber of the heart do the pulmonary veins deliver blood? Left atrium
The most muscular chamber of the heart is the _____ left ventricle
What is the role of the atrioventricular node (AV node)? To slow down impulses so that the atria can contract to fill adjacent ventricles with blood
The P wave of an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents____? Atrial depolarization
What causes the second heart sound (the 'dub of 'lub-dub')? The closure of the semilunar valves
Define stroke volume. The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle with each heartbeat
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the ____. Right ventricle and moves to the lungs
During systemic circulation, blood leaves the ____. Left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta
The endothelium is composed of which type of epithelial tissue? Simple squamos epithelium
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the ____? Right atrium
What is the correct sequence of layers in the walls of a blood vessel from outside to inside? Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima
Major long-term blood pressure control is provided by what organ? The kidneys. The kidneys act both directly and indirectly to regulate arterial pressure and provide the major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control by altering blood volume
Exchange of gases and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the____. Capillaries and tissue cells
Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called _____. Circulatory shock
Reduction in the lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as ______. Vasoconstricton
The only vessels that provide direct access to nearly every cell in the body are the _____. Capillaries
Whiat regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary? Precapillary sphincters
Loss of vasomotor tone that results in a huge drop in peripheral resistance is known as ____. Vascular shock
What artery branches to form the common hepatic artery, the left gastric artery, and the splenic artery? Celiac trunk
What is the longest vein in the body? Great saphenous vein
Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones? Middle layer, which contains smooth muscle
The minute to minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the _____? Diameter of the arterioles
The presence of _____ stabilizes the walls of capillaries? Pericytes
What type of blood vessel lacks intercellular clefts? Arterioles
The flow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium is called the _____. Systemic Circulation
A metarteriole is a vessel that ______. Is intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed
Baroreceptors are sensative to _______. Changes in blood pressure
An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of _____. Muscular arteries
What blood vessel is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis? The aorta
What is the major force generating blood flow? The pumping action of the heart
Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the _____. Aorta
Which vessel layer has a direct role in vasoconstriction? Tunica media
Blood flows directly from _________ into capillary beds. Arterioles
Which vessels exhibit the lowest levels of permeability? Continuous capillaries
When would the capillary beds surrounding the gastrointestinal organs be open? When digesting a meal
T/F, Baroreceptors are effective in long-term regulation of blood pressure False, short term blood pressure control involves both neural and hormonal controls. Neural control is regulated by higher brain centers, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors. Long term control is achieved through direct and indirect renal mechanisms
The peak of aortic pressure is referred to as ____? Systolic pressure
The lowest level of aortic pressure is referred to as ____? Diastolic pressure
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures is referred to as ____? Pulse pressure
The pressure that propels blood to the tissues is referred to as ____? Mean arterial pressure
What hormone acts on the kidneys and blood vessels to raise blood pressure? ADH, antidiuretic hormone pg 709
Fluids would be likely to leave or filter out of the capillary if ____ Net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is greater than net osmotic pressure (OP)pg 716
Cardiogenic shock is most likely to result from ____? Multiple heart attacks
The hepatic portal system collects blood from the ______ and then routes it to the ______. GI tract; liver
Created by: steven.tooze