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OTC Renal system


Where are the kidneys located? Bilaterally, waist high et retroperitoneal.
How many layers are there to the kidneys? 2 Cortex (outer) et Medulla (inner)
What does the cortex consist of? Glomeruli et most of the tubules. Receives a large blood supply, sensitive to changes in BP
What does the medulla consist of? 8-18 pyramids drain into the calices which join to form the renal pelvis.
How long are the Ureters? 25-30cm
What are the sections of the bladder? Apex-upper portion. Neck-inferior portion, contains internal sphincter. Trigone-bounded by the urethra and two ureters (closes during micturition to prevent reflux)
To begin micturition which system is stimulated first, sympathetic or parasympathetic? Sympathetic stimulates the trigone to close ureters first. Parasympathetic stimulates detrusor muscle to contract and empty the bladder.
How long is the urethra? Females 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 Males 5 1/2 to 6 1/4
What is a Nephron? Functional unit of the kidney 1-1.25mil. Vascular tubular system. Glomerulus which is a mass of blood vessels tucked into -> Bowman's capsule et tubules.
What are the 3 processes involved in urine production? glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular excretion
Explain glomerular filtration. Filtration across a semipermeable membrane. Must have adequate blood volume et hydrostatic pressure.
What does glomerular filtrate consist of? Should: H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Bicarb, PO4 etc plus glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid et amino acids. NO LARGE PROTEINS (WBC, RBC)
What is plasma protein found in urine indicative of? glomerular damage
Explain tubular reabsorption. Reabsorbs what is needed to maintain normal fluid balance. Occurs through diffusion, active transport et osmosis. What I not needed is excreted.
What regulates the amount of H2O absorbed? ADH et aldosterone. ADH=more reabsorption. Aldosterone=reabsorption by increasing NA retention. Reabsorption of H2O reflects kidney's ability to concentrate or dilute urine as needed
Explain tubular secretion Tubular secretions of K et free acids (H) regulate K levels et acid-base balance in conjunction with buffers in the blood et lungs(pH5-7).
How much urine usually collects in the bladder before the urge to micturate is produced?
Created by: slockhart