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ch. 22, 23, 24

Patho ii final

Name the 3 layers of the heart wall Epicardium Endocardium Myocardium
Name the 4 cardiac valves in order of location as blood passes through the heart Tricuspid valve Pulmonary semi lunar vavle Mitral vavle Aortic semi lunar valve
What is the function of the bundle of His Only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles
What structures are contained within the mediastinum Esophagus, Trachea, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Great vessels
The apex of the heart is Inferior
Cardiac tamponade is the compression of the heart due to Fluid build up with in the pericardium
The apex of the lung is Superior
There are how many layers of pericardium 2
A _________ revascularization (TRM) is performed on pts who are not good canidates for CABG Transmyocardial
The hilum of the lung is on which side Medial
Instrument sets for thoracic procedures are equipped with instruments needed to remove a Rib
Which artery is for oxygenation of blood Pulmonary
Removing a piece of the lung smaller than a segment is called Wedge resection
Hyaline cartilage Elastic connective tissue that covers the ends of bones
Tamponade Pathological compression of an anatomical part
Diastole Resting phase of the cardiac cycle
Stent Inserted to support luminous structures while allowing passage of fluids
Endocardium Inner lining of the heart wall in all of the hearts chambers and valves
Tachycardia Fast heart rate, more than 100 bpm
Atria Upper chambers of the heart that recieves blood
Infarction An area of dead tissue caused by an inadequate supply of oxygenated blood
Alveoli Terminal ends of the bronchioles forming grape-like clusters within the lungs
Bradycardia Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
Cardiac cycle Includes everything that occurs within the heart during a single heart beat
Myocardium Heart muscle made of specially constructed cardiac muscle cells that contract and force blood from the hearts chambers
angio- vessel
arter- artery
ather- yellowish plaque
brachi- arm
cardi- heart
coron- heart
cyan- blue
ox- oxygen
phleb- vein
sphygm- pulse
steth- chest
thrombo- clot
vas- vessel
vascul- vascular
algia- pain
epi- above
encepal- brain
myel- spinal cord
radicul- nerve root
algesia- sensitivity to pain
comat- deep sleep
lepsy- seizer
paresis- weakness
plegia paralysis
subdural under skin
epidural above skin dura matter
hemo- blood
CNS central nervous system
TIA (stroke) trans ischemia attack
CAD coronary artery disease
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
PVC premature ventricular contraction
MI myocardial infarction
DVT deep vein thrombosis
sephal head
I. olfactory nerve smell
II. optic nerve central and peripheral vision
III. oculomotor nerve eye movement (focus) pupillary constriction
IV. trochlear nerve eye movement (down toward the tip of the nose)
V. trigeminal nerve forehead and scalp sensation; cheek sensation; chewing
VI. abducens nerve eye movement to the sides
VII. facial nerve face and scalp movement; taste; ear sensation facial movement; expressions
VIII. vestibulocochlear nerve hearing; balance
IX. glossopharyngeal nerve tongue and throat sensations; throat movement
X. vagus nerve peristalsis; blood pressure; heart rate; coughing; sneezing
XI. accessory nerve swallowing; head and shoulder movements
XII. hypoglossal nerve speech; swallowing
sensory nerve fibers to the brain
motor nerve fibers away from the brain to muscles and organs
thalamus relay station for sensory impulses-pain
hypothalamus body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions
cerebellum co-ordination of voluntary movement and balance
brain-stem lower extension is where spinal cord attaches, cranial nerves come from the brain stem area. respiratory and cardiac regulation, level of awareness, reticular activating system
midbrain center for visual reflexes (eye and head movement)
pons breathing, eyes
medulla oblongata nerve fibers cross-over here, regulate body functions
brain stem order inferior to superior midbrain; pons; medulla oblongata
cerebrum thinking, personality, sensations, movement and memory, largest portion
temporal lobe hearing, understanding speech
rt temporal lobe visual memory
lt temporal lobe verbal memory
parietal lobe body sensations
occipital vision
frontal thought processes, behavior and personality
basal ganglia gray matter, coordinate between cerebellum for smooth movement
diencephalons gray matter, includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland and pineal. body temp regulation, pituitary control, ANS response, includes: thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus
mesencephalon or midbrain contains white and gray matter, reflex center, coordinate muscle movement
pleura a thin serous membrane that encloses the lungs
prolapse to fall or slip out of normal anatomical position
systole contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
infiltration accumulation or diffusion of a forgein substance into tissue
mediastinum area in the thoracic cavity in the middle of the thorax between the lungs
oxygenated saturated with oxygen
pericardium the sac that surrounds the heart
arrhythmia absence of cardiac rhythm
aneurysm sac made by localized dilation of artery walls due to structural weakening
ventricles the lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria
carnia inferior tracheal cartilage projecting from the tracheal cartilage
ductus arteriosus a fetal blood vessel that joins the aorta and pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the rt atrium and rt ventricle
pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the rt ventricle into the pulmonary arteries; which carries blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen
mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the lt atrium into the lt ventricle
aortic valve lets oxygen-rich blood pass from the lt ventricle into the aorta, your largest artery; which then delivers blood to the rest of the body
the average adult has approx. _____ liters of blood 5
_________ muscle helps move venous blood skeletal
_______ _______ is the inner layer of a vessel tunica interna
what is the self retainging retractor of choice for peripheral vascular procedures weitlaner
another name for the brachiocephalic artery is the _________ artery innominate
a ____ ____ saves the pts blood for auto transfusion cell saver
_____________ is wwhen a blood vessel dilates vasodilation
fogarty catheter used to facilitate the removal of an embolus
phrenic pertaining to the diaphragm
morbidity pertaining to disease
occlusion an obstruction
dissecting splitting apart; going between layers; separating
claudication severe pain in the muscle of the lower leg due to poor blood circulation
bifurcation division into two branches; Y shaped
contralateral the opposite side
patency the condition of being wide open
aventitia the outermost layer of an artery; composed of elastic connective tissue
pledgets small squares of Teflon sutured over holes in vessels
ischemia lack of oxygenated blood supply to an area or organ of the body
valve membranous fold that prevents the backflow of material passing through
mitigate to reduce the effects
sinus a dilated channel for venous blood
innominate an unnamed structure
in situ at the site of origin; in its normal place
diastole resting phase of the cardiac cycle
thrombus a stationary blood clot within a blood vessel
mortality pertaining to death
plethysmography useful in pts with diffuse small vessel arterial disease
papavarine a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of cardiovascular spasms
occlude to close off
intima inner layer of the arterial vessel wall
capillary where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs
embolus moves around in the circulatory system until it gets lodged in a vessel
located between the rt atrium and rt ventricle tricuspid valve
located at the base of the aorta aortic semi-lunar valve
blood returns from the lungs and enters the left atrium mitral valve
lower chambers of the heart ventricles
fibrous cords attached to the cusps of valves on the ventricle side chordactendineae
water in the brain hydrocephalus
tough outer layer of the meninges dura matter
integration bringing together several components or functions to facilitate harmony
intracranial pressure (ICP) pressure produced within the cranium
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nerves linking the various body parts to the central nervous system
sympathetic nervous system division of the ANS responsible for the flight or fight mechanism
glioma a group of malignant tumors composed of glial cells
central nervous system CNS the main component that coordinates and controls the bodys activities
abscess an area of broken down tissue containing pus and liquefied tissue
autonomic nervous system ANS responsible for smooth muscle contraction
dysraphism incomplete closure or faulty fusion
epidural above or outside the dura matter
transient ischemic attack TIA intermittent cerebrovascular insufficiancy due to partial arterial blockage
transsphenoidal across or through the sphenoid bone
acute a sever short term condition
circle of willis a complex vascular network located at the base of the brain
meninges three tissue membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum the largest section of the brain
parasympathetic nervous system PNS part of the ANS that restores homeostatic balance and conserves energy
hematoma a localized collection of extravasated blood that is often clotted
radiculopathy pain, numbness, and tingling due to compression of a spinal nerve root
extruded forced out of position
osteophyte an abnormal bony growth
decompress to relieve pressure
Created by: E.Ochoa



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