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A.B.SPRINGFINAL

ADVANCED BIOLOGY SPRING 2016 FINAL EXAM REVIEW

QuestionAnswer
Human societies at present are participating in ___ practices... Unsustainable
Level of ecological study that involves both biotic and abiotic components... Ecosystem
Globally, if a population lives only along a lake's shoreline, members of this population exhibit ___ spatial distribution... Clumped
If the # of prereproductive and reproductive members of a population exceeds the number of postreproductive members, the population will... Grow
___ growth occurs when a population size is increasing... Exponential
Deer prefer to feed on a dense thicket of oak saplings rather than more widely spaced young oak trees, this is an example of... Predation
The Ozark snarl-lip bat prefers to eat the fruit of the walnut tree as does the flying squirrel, this is an example of... Competition
Resource availability is a ___ factor... Density-dependent
Weather is a ___ factor... Density-independent
Decreased death rate followed by decreased birthrate has occurred in ___ countries... More developed
The biological level of organization subject to evolution by natural selection... Population
Populations maximum growth rate is also known as its ___... Biotic potential
Components of the environment that support its organisms... Resources
Technically has the lowest population density... Greenland
An ecosystem consists of a ___ of living things as well as the physical environment... Community
Ecology began as part of ___... Natural history
___ will contribute most to the world population growth... Less developed countries
___ is the number of individuals per unit area or volume... Population density
Some estimates predict that the human population will exceed 9 billion people w/in ___ years... 50
The total number of individuals that the resources of an area can support... Carrying capacity
The more developed countries tend to be in ___ and North America... Europe
The study of ___ encompasses the organism, population, community, ecosystem and biosphere... Ecology
A central goal of ecology is to develop ___ and explain and predict distribution and abundance of populations... Models
Applies ecological principles to practical human concerns... Environmental science
Studies all aspects of biodiversity with the goal of conserving natural resources... Conservation biology
High standard of living, contributes least to population growth... More developed countries
Decreased death rate followed by decreased birthrate... Demographic transition
The number of individuals born roughly matches the number of individuals dying... Replacement reproduction
A five year old child represents the... Prereproductive age
An elderly woman represents the.. Postreproductive age
A thirty year old woman/man represents the... Reproductive age
Clumped, random or uniform... Population Distribution
S-shaped growth curve... Logistic growth
Portion of the globe where a species can be found... Range
J-shaped growth curve... Exponential growth
Exhibit exponential growth; small in size; mature early and have a short life span; limited parental care... Opportunistic species
Exhibit logistic growth; large in size; slow to mature and have a long life span; good parental care... Equilibrium species
Consists of all the various populations at a particular locale... Community
A group of individuals of the same species in a given location at the same time... Population
Occurred in the 1800's and brought on a population increase due to increased production of food and jobs... Industrial revolution
The length of time it's assumed to take for the human population to double... Thirty-five years
Measured in terms of population size and resource consumption per capita... Environmental impact
Characteristics of a population.... Demographics
___ represent the varying ages of the individuals in a population... Age structure diagram
How age at death influences population size... Survivorship
Country with the highest population density... Monaco
Plotting the number of survivors per 1,000 births against age produces a(n)... Survivorship curve
Can occur when members of the same species attempt to use resources that are limited in supply but necessary to survival... Competition
Occurs when one organism eats another... Predation
Total disappearance of a species or higher group... Extinction
Have modified reptilian scales... Birds
Hypothesized to be ancestral to animals (very beginning...) Choanoflagellates
Extraembryonic membranes of the amniote egg have been modified for internal development within the uterus... Placental mammals
Insects have wings and three pairs of legs attached to the... Thorax
Sharks are examples of... Cartilaginous fishes
Mammals are ___, capable of balancing their internal temperatures... Endothermic
Bipedal but had a small brain... Australopithecus afarensis
Cnidarians are considered to be organized at the ___ level... Tissue
Being arranged around a central point... Radial symmetry
Having mirror-image, right and left halves... Bilateral symmetry
The type of mollusc that has tentacles... Cephalopod
Insects typically have ___ pairs of legs... 3
Arachnids typically have ___ pairs of legs... 4
In chordates, located just below the nerve cord toward the back... Notochord
Have a chitin exoskeleton... Arthropods
Move by pumping water... Echinoderms
Animals are members of the domain... Eukarya
Must acquire nutrients from external sources... Heterotrophic
Most animals begin life as a(n) ___ Fertilized egg
Some animals undergo a change in body form, from larval stage to adult... Metamorphosis
Give rise to all other tissue layers and organs in the body... Germ layers
The inner-most germ layer... Endoderm
The outer-most germ layer... Ectoderm
Localization of the brain and specialized sensory organs at the anterior end of the organism... Cephalization
Repitition of body plan along the length of the body... Segmentation
In, ___ the blastopore becomes the mouth... Protostomes
In, ___ the blastopore becomes the anal opening... Deuterostomes
Asexual reproduction by fragmentation... Budding
Bilaterally symmetrical acoelomates... Flatworms
Coelomate organisms with a complete digestive tract; includes octopus... Molluscs
Jointed appendages, exoskeleton, segmentation, well-developed nervous system, etc... Arthropods
Nonsegmented with a fluid-filled pseudocoelom... Roundworms
Possess both male and female sex organs... Hermophrodites
Radially symmetrical and capture prey with ring of tentacles that bear stinging cells... Cnidarians
Sac-like bodies perforated by many pores... Sponges
Segmented worms... Annelids
Shedding of the exoskeleton with growth... Molting
Study of insects... Entomology
Widely recognized as biodiversity hotspots... Coral reefs
Mammals become wide-spread because they could ___ to most environments on earth.. Adapt
Modern humans evolved in one location and then spread to other areas through migration... Out-Of-Africa Hypothesis
Modern humans began to spread outward and, through convergent evolution, adapted in similar ways to similar conditions... Multiregional Hypothesis
Unlike bony fishes, amphibians have ... Ears
The Spiny anteater and the Duckbill platypus are examples of ... Monotremes
The Koala and the Tasmanian wolf are examples of.. Marsupials
The first human-like feature to evolve in hominins was... Bipedalism
Encompasses human behavior and products, is dependent on the capacity to speak and transmit knowledge... Culture
First characteristic to develop that lead to the animal line... Multicellularity
Turtles, crocodiles, lizards... Reptiles
Body temperature matches the temperature of the external environment... Ectothermic
Most numerous and diverse of all the vertebrates... Bony fishes
Living both on land and in the water... Amphibians
Lack features associated with vertebrates, yet all the invertebrates they are most closely related to chordates... Echinoderms
Hard, crusty exoskeletons... Crustaceans
Spiders, scorpions, ticks... Arachnids
Secrete a nonliving exoskeleton that must be shed in order for the organism to grow... Ecdysozoans
"Stomach-footed"... Gastropods
"Head-footed"... Cephalopods
Clams, oysters, scallops... Bivalves
Tubule, found in annelids, that collects waste material and excretes it through an opening in the body wall... Nephridium
Space between the two folds of the mollusc mantle... Mantle cavity
Rasping, tongue-like organ of molluscs used to obtain food... Radula
Soft-bodied portion of the mollusc that contains internal organs... Visceral mass
Organism, like the sponge. that 'strains' food from the water by means of a device, usually pores of some type.... Filter-feeder
Body cavity... Coelom
Grow by adding additional mass to their existing body... Lophotrochozoans
States animals are descended from an ancestor that resembled a hollow, spherical colony of flagellated cells... hypothesis Colonial Flagellate
Include monkeys, apes, and humans... Anthropoids
Includes only the apes, chimps and humans as well as the closest extinct relatives... Hominid
Famous female skeleton dated at 3.18 MYA, small brain, and according to proportions of limbs the she stood upright and walked on two legs... Lucy
Massive brow ridges, nose/jaw/teeth protruded far forward, forehead was low ad sloping, and lacked a chip... Neandertals
Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens... Cro-Magnons
Animal virus which contains RNA and goes through a DNA synthesis stage... Retrovirus
Assembly of viral components within a host cell... Maturation
Immediate viral reproduction cycle... Lytic cycle
Incorporation of viral DNA into host DNA... Integration
Infectious proteinaceous particle... Prion
Latent viral reproduction cycle... Lysogenic cycle
Naked strand of RNA; infectious... Viroid
Noncellular, nonliving particles about 1/5 size of a bacterium... Virus
Viral components are synthesized... Biosynthesis
Viral DNA in its latent stage... Prophage
Virus that infects and reproduces in a bacterium... Bacteriophage
Outer unit of a virus composed of protein subunits... Capsid
There are two types of ___; bacteria and archaea... Prokaryotes
Show, in 1850, disproved the theory of spontaneous generation by show that sterilized broth cannot become cloudy with bacterial growth unless exposed to air where bacteria was abundant... Louis Pasteur
Cell-like structures complete with an outer membrane and may have resulted from the self-assembly of macromolecules and eventually gave rise to cellular life... Protocells
Area of a bacterial cell that it's chromosome is found... Nucleoid
Small, circular chromosome found in a bacterial cell... Plasmid
Bacterial cell walls are strengthened by a complex of polysaccharides linked by amino acids called... Peptidoglycan
Occurs when a bacterium picks up free pieces of DNA from their surroundings that have been secreted by live prokaryotes or released by dead ones... Transformation
Some bacteria are ___, forming a harmful relationship with one or more partners in which the bacterium benefits but the other organism suffers... Parasitic
Biological cleanup of an environment that contais harmful chemicals called pollutants... Bioremediation
Biological macromolecules produced by living cells... Biotic synthesis
Capable of surviving in very extreme environments... Archaea
How the first macromolecules on earth must have formed... Abiotic synthesis
Likely the first cells on earth... Prokaryotes
Most diverse and prevalent organisms on earth... Bacteria
Rod shaped bacteria... Bacillus
Spherical bacteria... Coccus
Spiral shaped bacteria... Spirilla
DNA passed between cells across a pilus... Conjugation
Bacterial DNA is carried from one cell to another by a bacteriophage... Transduction
Cells with a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles... Eukaryotes
Extremophiles that thrive in anaerobic environments... Methanogens
Extremophiles that thrive in high salinity environments... Halophiles
Extremophiles that thrive in hot and acidic environments... Thermoacidophiles
Cause disease by causing normal proteins to change shape and malfunction... Prions
Enzyme unique to retroviruses... Reverse transcriptase
Primary producers near deep-sea vents... Chemoautotrophs
Unicellular, golden-brown algae with a silica shell... Diatoms
Slime molds and water molds are ___, breaking down already dead material and releasing those nutrients into the environment... Decomposers
Represent the oldest lineage of oxygenic organisms... Cyanobacteria
Study of viruses... Virology
A virus requires this in order to reproduce... Host cell
Virus that reproduces within a bacterium... Bacteriophage
Plant viruses often enter through damaged tissue and then move about the plant using the ___... Plasmodesmata
Causes cold sores and chickenpox in humans and is a good example of a latent virus... Herpes virus
Causative agent of a disease that only recently has infected large numbers of people... Emerging virus
More stable form of nucleic acid... Deoxyribonucleic acid
Gel-like coating outside a cell wall that is common in bacterial cells living in diverse environments... Capsule
May be present between two bacterial cells allowing the transfer of DNA from one to the other... Conjugation pilus
Bacteria that send enzymes into the environment and decompose almost any large organic molecule to smaller ones that are absorbable... Saprotrophs
Cell targeted by a virus... Host cell
Chemosynthesizers... Chemoautotrophs
Heavy, protective coating surrounding a portion of dehydrated bacterial cytoplasm and a copy of the chromosome... Endospore
Microbes that can cause disease... Pathogens
Supported by the double membranes around mitochondria and chloroplasts... Endosymbiont theory
Uicellular diatoms, algae, dinoflagellates, ciliates, etc Protists
Chemical compound that composes the cell membrane of archaea... Polysaccharides
Emerging viruses may have acquired new virulence factors or ___ factors may have encouraged their spread to an increased number of hosts in a relatively short period of time... Environmental
Aim to prevent viral infections... Vaccines
Used to treat bacterial infections... Antibiotics
Side-effect of using antibiotics too frequently... Antibiotic resistance
Darwin referred to the process of promoting certain traits by breeding members with those traits as... Artificial selection
A morphological adaptation in which one species resembles another is called... Mimicry
Population decline causes an extreme genetic drift called a(n)... Bottleneck
Recently evolved traits that do not appear in ancestral fossils are called... Derived traits
What are two main components of natural selection? Variation and inheritance
What has occurred when fertilization produces a hybrid offspring that cannot develop or reproduce? Postzygotic isolation
What occurs when average traits benefit a population rather than extreme traits? Stabilizing selection
Charles Darwin served as naturalist on the ... HMS Beagle
While in the ... Darwin noticed slight differences in the animals from one island to the next Galapagos Islands
Show that the species present on Earth have changed over time Fossils
Thought to be the ancestor of birds Dinosaur
Are newly evolved features such as feathers Derived traits
Though to be the ancestor of armadillos Glyptodont
Modified structure seen among different groups of descendants Homologous structures
Eyes in a blind fish are examples of... Vestigial structures
DNA and RNA comparisons Comparative biochemistry
Bird wings and butterfly wings Analogous structures
Body structure that is no longer used for its original function Vestigial structures
Study of the distribution of plants and animals on earth Biogeography
Traits that enable individuals to survive or reproduce better than individuals without... Adaptations
Change in allelic frequencies in a population that is due to change Genetic drift
Removes individuals with average trait values, creating two populations with extreme ones Disruptive selection
Most common form of selection Stabilizing selection
When a small sample of the main population settles in a location separated from main population Founder effect
Species evolves into a new species without any barriers that separate the populations Sympatric speciation
Shift populations toward a beneficial but extreme trait value Directional selection
Population is divided by a barrier, each population evolves separately and eventually two populations cannot successfully interbreed Allopatric speciation
Change in size or frequency of a trait based on competition for mates Sexual selection
One species will sometimes diversity in a relatively short time into a number of different species Adaptive radiation
Idea that evolution occurred in small steps over millions of years Gradualism
Leafy sea dragon looks more like a plant than an animal, this is an example of... Camouflage
Change of species over time Evolution
Industrial melanism is a special case of... A structural adaptation
Process of directed breeding Artificial selection
Organisms most adapted to their environment survive, those which are not best adapted will die Natural selection
Early, pre-birth stage of an organisms development Embryo
Occurs when two or more species evolve adaptations to resemble one another Mimicry
Studying the structure of organisms during early stages of development Comparative embryology
States that when allelic frequencies remain constant, a population is in genetic equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Primitive features, such as teeth and tails, which appear in ancestral forms Ancestral traits
Process that splits a population into two groups Disruptive selection
Tough, polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi... Chitin
Reproductive structure of fungi... Fruiting body
Specialized hyphae found in parasitic fungi... Haustoria
Filaments composing the body o the fungus... Hyphae
Netlike mass of branching hyphae... Mycelium
Cross-walls between hyphae... Septa
Sac or case in which spores are produced... Sporangia
Reproductive haploid cell within a hard outer coat... Spore
Fungi do not contain pigments/chloroplasts so they are not autotrophic but rather... Heterotrophic
Can be used for both asexual or sexual reproduction in fungi... Spores
Process by which the offspring grows off the parent (parent cell) until it is large enough to function on its own... Budding
If the mycelium of a fungus is severed and the pieces are placed in an area in which conditions are favorable, each individual piece may grow and develop into a mature organism... Fragmentation
An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead organisms, recycling nutrients back into food webs... Decomposer
Some of the ___ and oldest organisms on earth belong to kingdom fungi... Largest
The cells walls, ___ and septa distinguish fungus from plants... Hyphae
Unicellular fungus found throughout the world and important in the commercial production of certain foods and beverages... Yeasts
An organism that feeds off a host cell/organism... Parasite
Organisms that live/function together and both benefit from the relationship... Mutualism
Hyphae that spread across the surface of food... Stolons
Hyphae that penetrate food and absorb nutrients... Rhizoids
Reproductive structure of molds that contain haploid nucleus... Gametangium
In sac fungi, hyphae that produce spores on their tips for asexual reproduction... Conidophores
In sac fungi, a reproductive structure where a zygote forms during asexual reproduction... Ascocarp
In sac fungi, a saclike structure where spores develop during sexual reproduction... Ascus
Spores produced by the ascus in sac fungi... Ascospores
Fruiting body of a club fungi... Basidiocarp
Club-shaped hyphae that produce spores in club fungi... Basidia
Spores produced in basidia during sexual reproduction of club fungi... Basidiospores
Recent ___ suggests chytrids are related more closely to fungi than to protists... Molecular evidence
A(n) ___ studies various aspects about fungus... Mycologist
___ are known as the imperfect fungi.. Deuteromycota
Type of fungi which transform organic substances from waste matter and dead organisms into raw materials... Saprophytes
Type of fungi which absorb nutrients from living hosts by means of haustoria... Parasites
Type of fungi which live in a symbiotic relationship with other living organisms... Mutualistic
Protect spores and keep them from drying out until they are released... Sporangia
Includes bread molds and other molds... Zygomycota
Appears to lack a sexual stage in life cycle... Deuteromycota
Produces flagellated spores... Chytridiomycota
Most common fungi phylum, includes yeasts... Ascomycota
Includes mushrooms... Basidiomycota
In sexual reproduction, parts of two haploid ___ fuse to form a diploid structure... Mating strains
Most members of the phylum Ascomycota are ___ Multicellular
Rapid growth of basidiocarps is due to... Cell enlargement
Saprophytic basidiocarps produce enzymes that ... Decompose wood
Produces airy bread and alcohol in beer and wine... Fermentation
Use of fungi and bacteria to remove pollution... Bioremediation
Living organism that is sensitive to environmental pollutants... Bioindicator
Producing a large number of spores increases a species' changes of... Survival
Some fungi are the source of ___ drugs used for organ transplants... Immune suppressant
Help plants gather inorganic nutrients... Mycorrhizal fungi
A fruit is derived from... Ovary
Plant __ can be used in either sexual or asexual reproduction... Spores
Plant tissue that transports water and minerals... Xylem
Ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms all have... Megaphylls
DNA and RNA comparisons shows that fungus are most closely related to... Animals
Have true roots, stems and leaves... Vascular plants
Represented by the mosses... Bryophytes
Tissue specialized to conduct organic nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant... Phloem
Probably evolved from a multicellular, freshwater green algae about 500 mya.. Terrestrial plants
Conifers bear ___ which contain reproductive structures of the plant... Cones
Flowering plants... Angiosperms
Sepals of the flower are arranged into a collective structure called the... Calyx
The sporophyte generation of nonvascular plants produces spores in a structure called a(n)... Sporangium
Specialized reproductive structure found in angiosperms... Flower
A seed is a mature... Embryo
Drought-resistant male gametophyte... Pollen grains
Female reproductive structures within a flower... Carpel
Fossilized plants used as a fuel that helps run our industrialized society... Coal
Male reproductive structures within a flower... Stamen
Organic compound that makes xylem cell walls stronger... Lignin
A population is dramatically decreased and then rebounds, but is now homozygous for nearly every gene studies... Bottleneck effect
Alters allele frequency only... Natural selection
Is reproductively isolated from other species... Biological species
Many new species evolving in various environments from a common ancestor... Convergent evolution
Transitional links are least likely to be found if evolution proceeds according to the ___ model... Punctuated equilibrium
Typically, mutations are immediately expressed and tested by the environment... Prokaryotes
Allopatric, but not sympatric, speciation requires... Geographic isolation
Alone, cannot bring about change in genotype and allele frequency... Sexual reproduction
Process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic and abiotic environments... Natural selection
When two or more extreme phenotypes are favored over any intermediate phenotype... Disruptive selection
Occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored and the distribution curve shifts in that direction... Directional selection
All members of a single species occupying a particular are at the same time and reproducing with one another... Population
Increase in the frequency of dark peppered moths compared to light peppered moths, due to pollution of the British forests they inhabited... Industrial melanism
Occurs when an intermediate phenotype is favored... Stabilizing selection
According to the ___ model, new species evolve slowly from an ancestral species... Gradual
Changes in the allele frequencies of a gene pool due to chance... Genetic drift
Favors characteristics that increase the likelihood of obtaining mates... Sexual selection
All members of a single species occupying the same place at the same time... Population
Different populations within the same species... Subspecies
Individuals ted to mate with those that have the same phenotype with respect to a certain trait... Assortative mating
Movement of alleles among populations by migration of breeding individuals... Gene flow
Movement of continents that has contributed to several extinctions... Continental drift
Permanent genetic changes... Mutations
Rare alleles, or combination of alleles, occur at a higher frequency in a population isolated from the general population... Founder effect
Various alleles at the same gene loci in all individuals... Gene pool
Prevents a majority of genotypes from participating in the production of the next generation... Bottleneck effect
As nations and populations grow, ___demands increase. Energy
Associated with heat, light, electricity, motion, sound, nuclei, and nature of a chemical and can be transferred in many ways. Energy
Ability to do work... Energy
Energy used for lighting, cooking and cooling/heating... Residential use
Energy used for electricity, heating and cooling in places like stores and schools... Public use
Energy powers machines... Industrial use
Energy powers cars, airplanse, trains, ships, etc Transportation use
Gasoline and natural gas... Petroleum products
Energy from resources that are continually produced... Renewable
Energy from resources that are used up faster than they can be produced naturally... Nonrenewable
Organic substances found underground in deposits formed from remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago Fossil fuels
Energy from the sun... Solar energy
Energy drawn from heat within the earth... Geothermal energy
Commonly used unit of energy... BTU
Energy that exists within the nucleus of an atom... Nuclear energy
Muscular tissue that is both striated and involuntary... Cardiac muscle
In a ____ control system, there is a fluctuation about a mean... Negative feedback
Type of epithelial cells found in the epidermis... Squamous
The layer below the epidermis... Dermis
When a human being is cold, blood vessels ___ and sweat glands are inactive... Constrict
Balance of internal systems relative to the external environment... Homeostasis
Cells working together towards a common function... Tissues
Type of muscle that helps to maintain posture... Skeletal muscle
Only fluid tissue in the body... Blood
Forms external coverings and internal linings of many organs and covers the entire surface of the body... Epithelium
Refers to a cavity... Lumen
Involved in binding organs together and providing support and protection... Connective tissue
Noncellular material that varies from solid to semifluid to fluid and usually contains fibers... Matrix
Not under conscious control... Involuntary
Coordinates functions of the body and allows an animal to respond to external and internal environments... Nervous system
Surrounds cells within a tissue... Interstitial fluid
The ___ of cells, tissues and organs they compose directly impacts their function. Structure
Component of blood that helps fight infection... White blood cells
Contains actin and myosin filaments... Muscle tissue
Transports nutrients and oxygen to tissue fluid for the cells and removes waste molecules... Circulatory system/blood
Skin and it's accessory structures.... Integumentary system
Secretes hormones... Endocrine system
Rids blood of wastes and helps regulate fluid/chemical level/content... Urinary system
Intake and breakdown of nutrients.. Digestive system
Brings oxygen into the body and removes CO2... Respiratory system
Absorbs fat from digestive system and collects excess tissue fluid which is returned to blood in the CV system... Lymphatic system
Contains different tissues that each perform a function to aid in the overall action... Organ
In exchange for a warm environment and plenty of food, our intestinal E. coli produce __ and assist in the breakdown of fiber into glucose. Vitamin K
An orchid looks and smells like the female of a certain wasp species, so when a male tires to copulate with flower after flower, in the process he transfers pollen. This is an example of... Coevolution
Starts where the soil has not yet formed following an environmental disruption... Primary succession
The abundance of both species is expected to increase as a result of which type of species interaction? Mutualism
In a grazing food web, carnivores that eat herbivores are considered... Secondary consumers
Elements necessary for all living things... Essential elements
The first trophic level in a food web is occupied by the... Producers
A listing of the various species found in a community... Species richness
Evolves in response to competition among species for a single niche... Character displacement
Species which stabilizes the community and helps to maintain it's characteristics, essentially holding together the web of interactions... Keystone species
Consists of communities of species interacting with each other and with the physical environment... Ecosystem
Assemblage of populations of multiple species, interacting with one another within a single environment... Community
Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually ___ , a color these birds can see. Red
Come chemoautotrophs, near hydrothermal vents, split ___ to obtain the energy needed to link carbon atoms together to form glucose. Hydrogen sulfide
Evolutionary change in one species results in an evolutionary change in another... Coevolution
Carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen cycle are all... Biogeochemical cycles
First species to appear in an area undergoing either type of ecological succession... Pioneer species
Depicts the loss of nutrients and energy from one trophic level to the next... Ecological pyramid
Evidence that competition and resource partitioning have taken place... Character displacement
Often introduced into a community and greatly disrupt normal interactions... Exotic species
Particular are of the community a species lives... Habitat
Diagrams that show a single path of energy flow in an ecosystem... Food chain
Increase in global temperature due to greenhouse gases accumulating in the atmosphere keeping radiation within... Global warming
Typically occurs because humans allow overgrazing of livestock... Desertification
Most of the freshwater in the world is used for... Irrigation
The first ___ resulted from the development of high-responding wheat and rice varieties... Green revolution
The preferred fossil fuel in the US is __ because it produces less pollution than the other(s). Oil
Most freshwater is held in... Glaciers
Trees with the ability to provide numerous products and perform a variety of functions in addition to serving as windbreaks... Multipurpose trees
___ of excess water from the over-irrigation of farmland causes salinization, accumulation of mineral salts, subsidence, loss of topsoil, etc. Evaporation
Wild species, such as ladybugs, play a role in ___ of agricultural pests... Biological control
Both direct and indirect value to humans... Biodiversity
Protecting biodiversity and natural resources for the good of all living things is the focus of... Conservation biology
Allow solar radiation to pass through the atmosphere but hinder the escape of infrared heat back into space... Greenhouse gases
Any alteration of the environment in an undesirable way... Pollution
Process of the soil settling as it dries out... Subsidence
At least ___ % of the world population lives within 100km of a coastline... Forty
Drawbacks to building ___ include; reservoirs lose water due to evaporation and seepage, salt left behind from evaporation and runoff can make water unusable farther downstream, etc. Dams
The human impact on the environment is ___ to the size of the population... Proportional
Crops such as wheat, corn and rice are derived from wild plants that have been modified to be high producers (example of ___) Agricultural value
Delivers water directly to a plant's root systems... Drip irrigation
Fresh water circulation, removal of CO2 from the air, uptake of excess soil nitrogen, etc. (example of ____) Biogeochemical cycles
Variety of life on earth Biodiversity
Most prescription drugs in the US were originally derived from organisms... (example of ___) Medicinal value
Created by: SavannahElkins