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What radioactive isotope would be used to measure the age of mummified tissue? Carbon-14
What fossil type provides the most anatomical information to paleontologist? Amber
What is the name of the period that followed extensive glaciations in the precambrian? Cambrian
Nearly all fossils occur in what kind of rock? Sedimentary
The oldest fossils found were of microfossils and are 3.5 billion years old and found in _____. Volcanic rock
Pasteur's experiments lead to the development of what theory? Theory of Biogenesis
____ was likely to have provided a framework for amino acid chains Clay
Banded iron formations are important evidence for the early evolution of ___. Photosynthetic autotrophs
What is the approximate age of the earth? 4.6 billion years
Which gas was most likely not part of the earth's early atmosphere? Oxygen
Cells with membrane bound nucleus and organelles Eukaryotes
Cells without membrane bound nucleus and organelles Prokayotes
Earth formed and the first life appeared Precambrian
Energy from sunlight and lightning allowed the first organic molecules to form Oparin Hypothesis
____ are the first molecules that must for in order to life to exist Amino acids
Mammals first appeared Mesozoic era
Prokaryotic cells were likely involved in the formation of Eukaryotic cells Endosymbiont theory
Scientists hypothesize that the first cells were ____ Prokaryotic
Which era of earth's history could be named the"era of mammals?" Cenozoic
The mass extinction of the dinosaurs happened during the ____ Mesozoic era
Smallest unit of geologic time lasting several million years Epoch
Determining the age in relation to the layers of rock surrounding the fossil Relative dating
Determining the age of a fossil by measuring radioactive elements present Radiometric dating
Scientist who studies fossils Paleontologist
Unit of geologic time consisting of two or more periods that last hundreds of millions of years Era
Divisions of geologic time lasting tens of millions of years Periods
Younger rock layers are deposited atop older rock layers Law of Superposition
Amount of time it takes for half of a given sample of radioactive elements to decay Half-life
Remains or evidence of once living organisms Fossils
Theory disproven by Redi Spontaneous Generation
Because of it's ____, earth is a planet that is capable of maintaining an atmosphere Gravitational field
Earliest fossilized life forms are known as ___. Microfossils
The death of all individuals of a species Extinction
Record of earth's history Geologic time scale
Geologic time scale was based on a coordinated project by the ___. International Commission on Stratigraphy
Ancestors of most major animal groups diversified in what scientists called the ____ Cambrian Explosion
Sediment layer in which scientists found large amounts of an element called iridium. K-T Boundary
The dominant organisms during mesozoic era Dinosaurs
Describes the movement of several large plates that make up the surface of the earth. Plate tectonics
Evidence indicates that a sequence of ______ preceded by the origin of life on earth and that life has evolved continuously since that time Chemical events
Pasteur's experiment showed that sterile broth remained free of ____ until exposed to air Microorganisms
The primordial soup hypothesis was proposed by Alexander Oparin and ___ John Haldane
The ____ experiment showed for the first time that organic molecules could be produced from gases proposed to have made up the atmosphere of early earth. Miller-Urey
Scientists who study chemistry and how it relates to life Biochemists
An instrument or process by which something is done or comes into being Mechanism
Archaea near deep-sea hydrothermal vents use ____ to form the base of the vent food web Inorganic molecules
Scientists believe that iron banding in sedimentary rocks is a result of cyclic peaks in ____ production. Oxygen
Biologist who proposed the endosymbiont theory Lynn Margulis
Darwin referred to the process of promoting certain traits by breeding members with those traits as... Artificial selection
A morphological adaptation in which one species resembles another is called... Mimicry
Population decline causes an extreme genetic drift called a(n)... Bottleneck
Recently evolved traits that do not appear in ancestral fossils are called... Derived traits
What are two main components of natural selection? Variation and inheritance
What has occurred when fertilization produces a hybrid offspring that cannot develop or reproduce? Postzygotic isolation
What occurs when average traits benefit a population rather than extreme traits? Stabilizing selection
Charles Darwin served as naturalist on the ... HMS Beagle
While in the ... Darwin noticed slight differences in the animals from one island to the next Galapagos Islands
Show that the species present on Earth have changed over time Fossils
Thought to be the ancestor of birds Dinosaur
Are newly evolved features such as feathers Derived traits
Though to be the ancestor of armadillos Glyptodont
Modified structure seen among different groups of descendants Homologous structures
Eyes in a blind fish are examples of... Vestigial structures
DNA and RNA comparisons Comparative biochemistry
Bird wings and butterfly wings Analogous structures
Body structure that is no longer used for its original function Vestigial structures
Study of the distribution of plants and animals on earth Biogeography
Traits that enable individuals to survive or reproduce better than individuals without... Adaptations
Change in allelic frequencies in a population that is due to change Genetic drift
Removes individuals with average trait values, creating two populations with extreme ones Disruptive selection
Most common form of selection Stabilizing selection
When a small sample of the main population settles in a location separated from main population Founder effect
Species evolves into a new species without any barriers that separate the populations Sympatric speciation
Shift populations toward a beneficial but extreme trait value Directional selection
Population is divided by a barrier, each population evolves separately and eventually two populations cannot successfully interbreed Allopatric speciation
Change in size or frequency of a trait based on competition for mates Sexual selection
One species will sometimes diversity in a relatively short time into a number of different species Adaptive radiation
Idea that evolution occurred in small steps over millions of years Gradualism
Leafy sea dragon looks more like a plant than an animal, this is an example of... Camouflage
Change of species over time Evolution
Industrial melanism is a special case of... A structural adaptation
Process of directed breeding Artificial selection
Organisms most adapted to their environment survive, those which are not best adapted will die Natural selection
Early, pre-birth stage of an organisms development Embryo
Occurs when two or more species evolve adaptations to resemble one another Mimicry
Studying the structure of organisms during early stages of development Comparative embryology
States that when allelic frequencies remain constant, a population is in genetic equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Primitive features, such as teeth and tails, which appear in ancestral forms Ancestral traits
Process that splits a population into two groups Disruptive selection
The condition of no longer existing... Extinction
Humanlike primates that appear to be more closely related to present-day human that to present-day chimps... Anthropoids
Tree-dwelling... Arboreal
Land-dwelling... Terrestrial
Overlapping fields of vision... Binocular vision
Active during the day... Diurnal
Active during the night... Nocturnal
Humanlike primate... Hominin
A digit set apart from the others that can be brought across the palm or foot to touch or nearly touch other digists... Opposable digit
Tail that functions like a fifth limb... Prehensile tail
To become different in character or form... Diverge
Suitable for diverse diets... Unspecialized teeth
Extended dependency period to allow time to learn complex social interactions... Low reproductive rate
Enhanced memory and coordination; problem-solving abilities and well developed social skills... Large complex brain
Wet-nosed primates... Strepsirrhines
Dry-nosed primates... Haplorines
What is special about the island of Madagascar that makes it a great place to study evolution? Isolated
First primates appeared... 85 mya
Anthropoids diverged from tarsiers... 50 mya
Earliest primate fossils appeared... 60 mya
New world monkeys diverged from old world monkey line... 35-25 mya
Flowering trees provided a new food source as well as new living environments; which most likely spurred the evolution of ____ living... Arboreal
Organelle found in eukaryotic cells containing genetic material and responsible for cellular energy... Mitochondria
First fully modern human group; expressed itself symbolically and artistically... Cro-Magnon
Genus that includes living and extinct humans... Homo
Distinct human species that evolved exclusively in Europe and Asia; larger and more heavily muscled than modern humans... Neanderthal
Modern humans evolved from several dispersed populations of early Homo species at the same time in different areas of the world (convergent evolution)... Multiregional evolution model
Modern humans evolved only once, in Africa, and then migrated to all parts of the world... Out of Africa hypothesis
___ DNA is inherited only from the mother... Mitochondrial
Evidence suggests they cared for their sick and buried their dead... H. neanderthalensis
More versatile than predecessors; adapted successfully to a variety of environments... H. erectus
First undisputed member of the Homo genus... H. habilis
Nicknamed the "hobbit"... H. floresiensis
Though to have had the first "human nose"... H. ergaster
Limber shoulders and hips made for ease of... Locomotion
Binocular vision led to advanced... Depth perception
Subfamily that includes only humans and human ancestors... Hominin
Order of animals characterized by flexible hands and feet... Primate
Humanlike primate... Anthropoid
(T/F) The primate flexible hand might have evolved to catch insects... T
(T/F) Arboreal adaptations allowed primitive primates to escape predators F
(T/F) The earliest primate fossil might have resembled the modern tree shrew T
(T/F) According to the fossil record, strepsirrhines were widespread by about 50 mya T
(T/F) Early anthropoids had small brains T
(T/F) When antrhopoids emerged, may strepsirrhines became extinct T
(T/F) Aegyptopithecus fossils show neither haplorhine nor strepsirfhine features F
Most primates have body types adapted for (hand over hand motion) or... Brachiation
Most homo adaptations were a result to a ___ habitat... Savanna
Small, apelike hominins that lived in Africa between 4.1-1 mya... Austalopithicine
A. afarensis was bipedal, but she exhibited apelike traits. What type of evolutionary pattern might account for this...? Mosaic
First undisputed member of the hominin group... A. africanus
Which species made the fossilized footprints which Mary Leakey discovered? A. afarensis
Who found "Lucy?" Donald Johansen
Who found and nicknamed the "Taung baby?" Raymond Dart
The name ___ means "spirit of the night"... Lemur
The earliest fossilized primate is the ____... Atliatlasius
Longer arms than legs, larger brains in comparison with monkeys, barrel-shaped chests, o tails and flexible joints... Apes
Characterized by a relatively long tail which is often prehensile... New world monkeys
African apes live in family groups or small bands and display complex... Social behaviors
Best known and some of the oldest hominoid fossils; had the smallest brain of the hominoid... Proconsul
"Prokaryotic" literally means... Without a nucleus
Submicroscopic, hairlike structures that are made of protein Pili
Although some prokaryotes are stationary, other use ___ for movement Flagella
Autotrophs that break down and release inorganic compounds in their metabolism Chemoautotrophs
Autotrophs that conduct photosynthesis Photoautotrophs
To put similar organisms in groups Classify
The science of grouping and naming organisms Taxonomy
The largest of the classification categories Kingdom
Two-name naming system of classification Binomial Nomenclature
A group made up of all the orders of similar species Class
Smallest, most specific classification category Species
An organisms evolutionary history Phylogeny
The great variety of plant and animal species on earth Species Diversity
The 2nd highest of the taxonomical categories in the plant kingdom Division
Tool to help identify an organism's scientific name Dichotomous Key
Aristotle's classification categories DID NOT have a logical spot for ___________ (frogs) Amphibians
Linnaeus's major contribution to organism classification was ________ Binomial Nomenclature
The first word of an organisms scientific name is the Genus
The second word of an organisms scientific name is the Species
The ______ is always capitalized in the scientific name Genus
When classification is based on phylogeny, scientist look specifically at DNA, fossils, body structures, and _______ _______ Embryo Development
The kingdom that includes bacteria is ______ Monera
Fungi make their own food (true/false) False
Monera were the first cells on earth (true/false) True
Protists are (eukaryotic/prokaryotic) Eukaryotic
Animals are multi-celled and move independently (true/false) True
A species whose survival is threatened by the cutting down of old growth forests in the US is the Northern Spotted Owl
Scientists communicate best when they use _____ for classifications Scientific Names
The classification system most commonly used today separates organisms into ______ major kingdom Five
Organisms with the same ______ names are more closely related than those with the same phylum name and less closely related than those with the same Order. Class
The Carolina parakeet and the ______ are species that have gone extinct because of human activities Passenger Pigeon
Monera are (unicellular/multicellular/both) Unicellular
Protists are (unicellular/multicellular/both) Both
Fungi are (unicellular/multicellular/both) Both
Plants are (unicellular/multicellular/both) Multicellular
Animals are (unicellular/multicellular/both) Multicellular
There can be more than one species in a genus (true/false) True
The word Eukaryote means True Nucleus
The language used for naming organisms is Latin
The scientific name of an organism must either be italicized OR Underlined
The word Prokaryote means Before Nucleus
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'P' stands for Phylum
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'O' stands for Order
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'K' stands for Kingdom
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'S' stands for Species
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'C' stands for Class
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'F' stands for Family
In the saying, "Kings Play Chess On Fuzzy Green Stools" the 'G' stands for Genus
Animal like protists... Protozoans
Plant like protists... Algae
Fungus like protists, Slime molds or... Water molds
Fungus like protists, water molds or... Slime molds
Protozoans which move via cilia... Ciliates
Protozoans which move and envelop food using pseudopods... Sarcodines
Protozoans which move via flagella... Zooflagellates
Protozoans which reproduce using spores... Sporozoans
Protist that makes its own food through photosynthesis... Algae
Protists that east other unicellular organisms... Protozoans
Protist that absorbs its nutrients from dead organisms... Fungus-like protist
Digests wood for termites... Microsporidium
Protists are classified into three groups based on... Food source
The ___ of protists is now well known. Evolutionary history
The ___ is describes the most likely means by which Eukaryotic cells, the protists being the first, evolved... Endosymbiont theory
The ___ and zoomastigina (zooflagellates) cause diseases in humans... Apicomplexa (sporozoans)
Type of sleeping sickness, AKA chagas disease, caused by a zooflagellate... American Sleeping Sickness
African sleeping sickness is transmitted to humans via the... Tsetse fly
Algal blooms occur when ___ reproduce in great numbers due to plentiful food and favorable environmental conditions... Dinoflagellates
Algae that have characteristics of both plants and animals... Euglenoids
The life cycle of algae is similar to plants in that they practice... Alternation of generations
The cell walls of fungus like protists do not contain ___ like the cell walls of true fungi... Chitin
Slime molds form a ___ which is a moving mass of cytoplasm... Plasmodium
A chemical called ___ signals slime mold amoeboid cells to congregate and form a single sluglike colony... Acrasin
Acellular slime molds belong to the phylum... Myxomycota
Water molds and downy mildew in the phylum ___ are often found in water or other damp places... Oomycota
The downy mildew responsible for the Irish potato famine... Phytophthora infestans
Giant kelp is an example of... Algae
Some protists live in ___ conditions in which they depend on other organisms... Symbiotic
A paramecium is an example of... Ciliates
Structure in a paramecium which contains copies of the cell's genome for controlling everyday functions... Macroucleus
Amoebas use ___ for feeding and locomotion... Pseudopods
Euglenoids have a structure called a(n) ___ to detect light... Eyespot
What type of plant like protist produces much of the oxygen in the atmosphere? Phytoplankton
___ allow algae to absorb light in deep water... Secondary pigments
The cell-wall of a fungus like protist contains ___ instead of chitin... Cellulose
Feeding stage of a slime mold in which it is a mobile cytoplasmic mass... Plasmodium
What does a diatom use to store excess food? Oil
Which organism has silica walls? Diatom
A Paramecium's contractile vacuole helps to regulate the ___ inside the cell... Amount of water
Contain parasitic sporozoans... Apicomplexa
Used to thicken puddings, syrups and shampoos... Red algae
Includes all species of kelp... Brown algae
Includes the most common species of algae found in NA freshwater... Green algae
Most freshwater algae species are classified into phylum... Chlorophyta
Phylum phaeophyta classifies kelp and other protists called... Brown algae
Algae in phylum bacillariophyta that have two halves and display a wide variety of geometric shapes... Diatoms
Ciliates vary the composition of their DNA by using the process of ... Conjugation
Protists in phylum Rhodophyta that contain calcium carbonate and contribute to the formation of coral reefs are called... Red algae
Human disease caused by a sporozoan and transmitted by mosquitoes... Malaria
asexual reproduction in which there is an exchange of genetic information.... Conjugation
Studies organisms that usually are seen only with a microscope... Microbiologist
The concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell... Hypotonic
The concentration of dissolved substances is the same in the solution as is inside the cell... Isotonic
Comes from the Greek word meaning 'the very first'... Protist
Chlorophyll containing organelles found in the cells of green plants and some protists that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy... Chloroplast
A biologist who specializes in the study of algae... Algologist
Yellow-green and golden brown algae... Chrysophytes
Something that completes or makes an addition... Supplement
A glucose polymer that forms the cell walls of plants and some fungus like protists... Cellulose
A particular state in a regular cycle of changes... Phase
Tough, polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi... Chitin
Reproductive structure of fungi... Fruiting body
Specialized hyphae found in parasitic fungi... Haustoria
Filaments composing the body o the fungus... Hyphae
Netlike mass of branching hyphae... Mycelium
Cross-walls between hyphae... Septa
Sac or case in which spores are produced... Sporangia
Reproductive haploid cell within a hard outer coat... Spore
Fungi do not contain pigments/chloroplasts so they are not autotrophic but rather... Heterotrophic
Can be used for both asexual or sexual reproduction in fungi... Spores
Process by which the offspring grows off the parent (parent cell) until it is large enough to function on its own... Budding
If the mycelium of a fungus is severed and the pieces are placed in an area in which conditions are favorable, each individual piece may grow and develop into a mature organism... Fragmentation
An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead organisms, recycling nutrients back into food webs... Decomposer
Some of the ___ and oldest organisms on earth belong to kingdom fungi... Largest
The cells walls, ___ and septa distinguish fungus from plants... Hyphae
Unicellular fungus found throughout the world and important in the commercial production of certain foods and beverages... Yeasts
An organism that feeds off a host cell/organism... Parasite
Organisms that live/function together and both benefit from the relationship... Mutualism
Hyphae that spread across the surface of food... Stolons
Hyphae that penetrate food and absorb nutrients... Rhizoids
Reproductive structure of molds that contain haploid nucleus... Gametangium
In sac fungi, hyphae that produce spores on their tips for asexual reproduction... Conidophores
In sac fungi, a reproductive structure where a zygote forms during asexual reproduction... Ascocarp
In sac fungi, a saclike structure where spores develop during sexual reproduction... Ascus
Spores produced by the ascus in sac fungi... Ascospores
Fruiting body of a club fungi... Basidiocarp
Club-shaped hyphae that produce spores in club fungi... Basidia
Spores produced in basidia during sexual reproduction of club fungi... Basidiospores
Recent ___ suggests chytrids are related more closely to fungi than to protists... Molecular evidence
A(n) ___ studies various aspects about fungus... Mycologist
___ are known as the imperfect fungi.. Deuteromycota
Type of fungi which transform organic substances from waste matter and dead organisms into raw materials... Saprophytes
Type of fungi which absorb nutrients from living hosts by means of haustoria... Parasites
Type of fungi which live in a symbiotic relationship with other living organisms... Mutualistic
Protect spores and keep them from drying out until they are released... Sporangia
Includes bread molds and other molds... Zygomycota
Appears to lack a sexual stage in life cycle... Deuteromycota
Produces flagellated spores... Chytridiomycota
Most common fungi phylum, includes yeasts... Ascomycota
Includes mushrooms... Basidiomycota
In sexual reproduction, parts of two haploid ___ fuse to form a diploid structure... Mating strains
Most members of the phylum Ascomycota are ___ Multicellular
Rapid growth of basidiocarps is due to... Cell enlargement
Saprophytic basidiocarps produce enzymes that ... Decompose wood
Produces airy bread and alcohol in beer and wine... Fermentation
Use of fungi and bacteria to remove pollution... Bioremediation
Living organism that is sensitive to environmental pollutants... Bioindicator
Producing a large number of spores increases a species' changes of... Survival
Some fungi are the source of ___ drugs used for organ transplants... Immune suppressant
Adaptations to ___ on earth contributed to the evolution of plants... Environmental changes
Present day plants and ___ share many characteristics... Present day algae
Waxy coating on outer surface of plant cells... Cuticle
Openings on plant leaves enabling exchange of gases... Stomata
Specialized plant tissues used for transport... Vascular tissue
Reproductive strategies that enabled the adaptations of plants to land... Spores/seeds
Haploid gametophyte generation produces diploid sporophyte generation... Alternation of generations
Haploid gametophyte produces... Gametes
Diploid sporophyte produces... Spores
Most of the plant's lifetime is spent in the ___ Sporophyte generation
Typically small and usually grow in damp enviroments... Nonvascular plants
Mosses; no true leaves; rhizoids; water and nutrients transported via diffusion... Bryophyta
Rootlike, multicellular projections that anchor mosses to the soil/surfaces... Rhizoids
Smallest division; water and nutrients via osmosis/diffusion; one large chloroplast in each cell; mutualistic relationship with cyanobacterium... Anthocerophyta
Liverworts; grow close to the ground; water and nutrients transported by osmosis/diffusion, classified as either thallose or leafy... Hepaticophyta
Tissues for transport and are generally larger and better adapted to drier environments than nonvascular plants... Seedless vascular plants
Compact cluster of spore-bearing structures... Strobilus
Includes ferns ad horsetails; coal age plants; can produce sporophytes without fertilization... Pterophyta
Plants that live anchored to an object or another plant... Epiphyte
Underground organs for food-storage... Rhizomes
Large, leaf-like structure seen in seedless vascular plants... Frond
Structure in which spores form... Sporangium
Clusters of sporangium on the underside of fronds... Sorus
Structure found within the seed that either stores food or helps absorb food for the tiny sporophyte... Cotyledon
Male and female cones grow on separate plants; large, divided leaves; naturally found in tropics and subtropics; grew in abundance 200 mya... Cycadophyta
Can live as long as 1500-2000 years; just three genera; ranges from species of tropical trees and climbing vines... Gnetophyta
Only one living species left; small fan-shaped leaves; male and female systems on separate plants... Ginkgophyta
Range i size from low-growing shrubs to towering trees; most economically important gymnosperms; waxlike coating on needle-/scale-like leaves... Coniferophyta
Flowering plants; most widely distributed plants; make up 75% of the plant kingdom today... Anthophyta
Completes its life span in one growing season or less... Annual plants
Life span two years... Biennial plants
Can live for several years and usually produces flowers and seeds yearly... Perennial plants
Protists that formed colonies in the sea 570 mya and are the predecessors of the animal kingdom... Choanoflagellates
Must feed on other organisms... Heterotrophs
Can produce their own food... Autotrophs
Without a backbone... Invertebrates
With a backbone and endosekelton.. Vertebrates
Cover the bodies of many invertebrates... Exoskeletons
Internal skeletons... Endoskeletons
Animal cells lack a ___ like those found in plants... Cell wall
Animals are organized into structure and functional units called... Tissues
Produce both eggs and sperm in the same animal body... Hermaphrodites
Cell formed from a fertilized egg cell... Zygote
Fluid filled ball of cells... Blastula
Two cell layer sac with opening at one end... Gastrula
Inner layer of gastrula; develops into digestive organs and lining of the digestive tract... Endoderm
Outer layer of gastrula; develops into nervous tissue and skin... Ectoderm
Develops to become muscle, circulatory system, excretory system and in some species a respiratory system... Mesoderm
First anatomical feature to indicate a major change in body plants was the... Development of tissues
Similarity or balance among body structures... Symmetry
A body plan with a definite head and rear end; also a ventral and dorsal surface... Cephalization
Fluid-filled cavity developing within mesoderm... Coelom
Fluid-filled cavity that develops between mesoderm and endoderm... Pseudocoelom
Organisms without an internal cavity; solid bodies... Acoelomate
Animals whose mouth develops from the first opening in the gastrula; final outcome for each cell in embryo cannot be altered... Protostomes
Animals whose anus develops from the first opening in the gastrula; final outcome for each cell in embryo can be altered... Deuterostomes
Body or body parts is/are broken into individual sections... Segmentation
First animals to evolve from multicellular ancestor... Sponges and Cnidarians
No tissues and asymmetrical... Phylum Porifera
Two tissue layers and contain collar cells... Phylum Cnidaria
Approximately when did primitive land plants appear? 400 mya
What was the biggest obstacle for plants to live on land? Obtaining enough water
Structure which contains clusters of sporangia in ferns... Sorus
Plant division that has needle-like or scaly leaves? Coniferophyta
When one cell is removed during early development, the organism will not develop into a complete animal... Protostome
When one cell is removed during early development, not only will the organism still develop completely but the cell removed could develop into a whole new organism... Deuterostome
The under-surface of an animal, or the belly side... Ventral
Cnidarians evolved directly from.. Multicellular choanoflagellates
Most primitive of land plants... Liverworts
Body plan with mirror-image right and left halves... Bilateral symmetry
Plant that lives anchored to another plant or object... Epiphyte
Hard outer covering of some animals... Exoskeleton
Two-layer sac with an opening at one end... Gastrula
Animals that produce both eggs and sperm... Hermaphrodites
Spore-bearing structures that form a compact cluster... Strobilus
Enable gas exchange for terrestrial plants... Stomata
Backside of an organism... Dorsal surface
The gametophyte is... Haploid
The sporophyte is... Diploid
Plant structure that contains the embryo... Seed
Gymnosperms with cones containing reproductive structures, large divided leaves, tropics and subtropics... Cycadophyta
Tropical trees and climbing vines, gymnosperms, source of ephedrine, live in diverse environments... Gnetophyta
One living species of this gymnosperm division left... Ginkgophyta
Used for lumber and lumber products... Confierophyta
Flower plants... Anthophyta
Created by: SavannahElkins