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A&PSPRINGFINAL

SPRING 2016 FINAL EXAM: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
The lacteals absorb Chylomicrons
Periodontal tissue Gingiva
Physical breakdown of food into smaller particles Mechanical digestion
Muscular tube extending from mouth to anus Alimentary canal
Muscular tube extending from mouth to the anus, also known as the alimentary canal Digestive tract
Teeth Dentition
Vomiting without prior knowledge or retching Projectile vomiting
Fat digestion begins in the Stomach
A tooth is composed mostly of Dentin
Peristalsis is controlled by the Myenteric nerve plexus
The absorption of dietary ___ requires the intrinsic factor B12
The filing of the stomach stimulates the contractions of the __ Colon
The ___ secrete 1 to 2 L of juice per day which has a pH of 7.4 to 7.8 Intestines
The __is the first 40% of the small intestine beyond the duodenum Jejunum
The __ is the space between the cheeks and the teeth/lips Vestibule
Study of the digestive tract and the diagnosis and treatment of its disorders Gastroenterology
The esophagus, stomach and intestines have a nervous network known as the ___ which regulates digestive tract motility, secretion and blood flow Enteric nervous system
Hold the abdominal viscera in the proper relationship to each other Mesenteries
The motility and secretion of the digestive tract are controlled by neural, ___ and paracrine mechanisms Hormonal
The average adult has __ teeth Thirty-two
The stomach mechanically breaks up food particles, ___ the food and begins the chemical digestion of proteins and fat Liquifies
The mixture of gastric juices and food that travels from the stomach through the intestines Chyme
About 25% of people develop this as a consequence of cirrohosis Ascites
Chronic inflammation resulting in ulceration of the large intestine which tends to be hereditary Ulcerative colitis
Hard masses in the gallbladder or bile duct Gallstones
Home to more than 700 species of microorganisms, especially bacteria Human mouth
Inflammation of the small and large intestines Crohn disease
Inflammation of the stomach Gastritis
Lacking the enzyme lactase Lactose intolerance
Pepsin and HCl have eroded the stomach lining Peptic ulcer
Pulp of the tooth is removed and replaced with inert material Root canal
Severe pancreatic inflammation Acute pancreatitis
Elimination of solid waste Defecation
Organ lies against the posterior body wall and is covered by peritoneum on the anterior side only Retroperitoneal
The mouth is lined with Stratified squamous epithelium
Retain food and push between teeth for chewing Cheeks/lips
Manipulates food between the teeth, extract food from teeth; sense of taste is rooted here Tongue
Separates oral cavity from nasal cavity Palate
Swallowing Deglutition
Chewing Mastication
Muscular funnel that connects oral cavity to the esophagus and nasal cavity to the larynx Pharynx
Straight muscular tube leading to stomach Esophagus
Involuntary phase of swallowing Pharyngoesophageal phase
Voluntary phase of swallowing Buccal phase
Muscular sac used primarily for food storage Stomach
Composed mainly of water, HCl acid and pepsin Gastric juice
Wrinkles of the stomach mucosa and submucosa Gastric rugae
Digests proteins into shorter chains Pepsin
Digests dietary fat in the stomach Gastric lipase
Forceful ejection of the stomach and intestinal contents through the mouth Vomiting
A typical meal is emptied into the stomach in about ___ hours 4
Reddish brown gland with tremendous variety of functions Liver
Largest gland in the body Liver
Regulates the passage of bile and pancreatic juice into duodenum Hepatopancreatic sphincter
Serves to store and concentrate bile Gallbladder
Green fluid containing minerals, cholesterol, neutral fats, etc. Bile
Spongy retroperitoneal gland composed mostly of exocrine tissue Pancreas
Stimulates pancreatic cells to secrete enzymes even before food is swallowed Acetylcholine
Stimulates pancreatic cells to secrete enzymes and stimulates gallbladder while relaxing the HP sphincter Cholecystokinin
Stimulates the ducts of liver and pancreas to secrete abundant sodium bicarbonate solution Secretin
Nearly all chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occur in the __ Small intestine
Begins at the pyloric valve and receives stomach contents, pancreatic juice and bile Duodenum
Most digestion/nutrient absorption occurs in this section of the small intestine Jejunum
Movement in which stationary ring-like constrictions appear along intestine and relax as new constrictions form elsewhere Segmentation
Blind pouch in lower right quadrant of large intestine; appendix is attached to lower right end Cecum
Section between ileocecal junction and rectum Colon
Micturition occurs when the ___ contracts... Detrusor muscle
Process of separating wastes from the body fluids and eliminating them... Excretion
The compact ball of capillaries in a nephron... Glomerulus
Most abundant nitrogenous waste in the blood... Urea
Urine is about ___ % water... Ninety-five
The glomerulus and glomerular capsule make up one... Renal corpuscle
Increased ADH secretion should cause the urine to have a lower ___ concentration ... Potassium
The urinary system consists of ___ principle organs... Six
Any substance that is useless to the body or present in excess of the body's needs is known as a(n)... Waste
Substances containing nitrogen that are produced as by-products of cellular metabolism... Nitrogenous wastes
Any chemical that increases urine volume... Diuretic
The most abundant solute in the urine aside from urea... Chlorine ions
The kidney is protected by ___ layers of connective tissue... 3
The kidneys receive about 1.2 liters of blood per minute which is known as the ___ Renal fraction
Animals that must conserve water have ___ more numerous nephron loops that those that have little need for conservation... Longer
Hormone that regulates the amount of water reabsorbed by the collecting duct... Antidiuretic hormone
Ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood flow without external control... Renal autoregulation
Waste substance produced by the body... Metabolic waste
Blood flows through the ___ arteries just before entering the cortical radiate arteries; all part of the blood supply to the kidneys Arcuate
Each ___ is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule... Nephron
Group of epithelial cells of the nephron loop that monitors the flow or composition of the tubular fluid... Macula densa
Reflex that is an autonomic reflex activated by pressure in the urinary bladder... Micturition
Sphincter that is under involuntary control and relaxes during the micturition reflex... Internal urethral sphincter
The two ureters and the urethra form boundaries of a smooth area called the ___ on the floor of the urinary bladder... Trigone
Abrupt decline in renal function often due to traumatic damage to the nephron or a loss of blood flow stemming from hemorrhage.... Acute renal failure
Any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria... Diabetes
Autoimmune inflammation of the glomeruli which leads to hematuria, edema and hypertension... Acute glomerulonephritis
Excretion of large amounts of protein in the urine... Nephrotic syndrome
Inability to hold urine Urinary incontinence
Increase in fluid pressure in the renal pelvis owing to obstruction of the ureter by kidney stones... Hydronephrosis
Infection of the urinary bladder.... Cystitis
Kidney stone... Renal calculus
Often requires a kidney transplant or hemodialysis... Chronic renal failure
Procedure for artificially clearing wastes from the blood when the kidneys are not adequately doing so... Hemodialysis
Slipping of the kidney to an abnormally low position... Nephroptosis
State in which kidneys cannot maintain hemostasis due to extensive destruction of their nephrons... Renal insufficiency
Urine output less than 500 ml a day... Oliguria
Urine output greater than 2 L a day... Polyuria
Any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria... Diabetes
Body's principle means of waste excretion... Urinary system
About 50% of the nitrogenous waste in the body... Urea
About ___ of the water that passes through the kidney is reabsorbed... Two-thirds
Yellow color of urine is due to...which is a pigment produced by the breakdown of hemoglobine and red blood cells Urochrome
The kidneys secrete the hormone ___ which stimulates the production of red blood cells... Erythropoietin
Concave surface of the kidney where the renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics and ureter are admitted... Hilum
Fluid in the capsular space which is similar to blood plasma except that it has almost no protein... Glomerular filtrate
Fluid from the proximal convoluted tubule through the distal convoluted tubule is called... Tubular fluid
Fluid that has entered the collecting duct... Urine
Blood in the urine... Hematuria
Protein in the urine... Proteinuria
The process of reclaiming water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returning them to the blood... Tubular reabsorption
Process in which the renal tubule extracts chemicals from the capillary blood and secretes them into the tubular fluid... Tubular secretion
Salt-retaining hormone... Aldosterone
Location of the micturition center in the brain... Pons
The brain is enveloped within three connective tissue layers called... Meninges
Inflammation of the meninges... Meningitis
Four internal chambers of the brain... Ventricles
Spongy mass of blood capillaries found on the floor of each ventricle... Choroid plexus
Clear, colorless liquid that fills the ventricles... Cerebropsinal fluid
Produces a majority of the CS fluid... Ependyma cells
Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the brain... Hydrocephalus
Strictly regulates substances in the bloodstream coming into contact with the fluid/tissue of the brain... Brain-Barrier System
Enable brain to monitor and respond to fluctuations in the fluid concentrations... Circumventricular organs
All nerve fibers connecting the brain to the spinal cord pass through the... Medulla oblongata
Carries sensory and motor signals up and down the brainstem... Pons
Area functions in visual attention, tracking moving objects, and reflexes such as blinking etc... Midbrain
Somatic motor control, cardiovascular control, pain modulation, habituation, etc... Reticular formation
Gateway to the cerebral cortex... Thalamus
Becomes the cerebrum... Telencephalon
Concerned with hearing, smell, learning, memory and some aspects of vision and emotion... Temporal lobe
Consists of a collection of neurons that monitor the body temperature... Hypothalamic thermostat
Important center of emotion and learning... Limbic system
Forms the uppermost part of the brain and is primary site for receiving and interpreting signals of general senses... Parietal lobe
Most of the volume of the cerebrum is composed of... White matter
Layer covering the surface of the cerebral hemispheres and constituting about 40% of the mass of the brain... Cerebral cortex
Lies immediately behind forehead and is chiefly concerned with voluntary motor functions, foresight/planning, emotion, etc... Frontal lobe
Primary function is to relay signals from limbic system to thalamus... Mammillary bodies
Principle vision center of brain... Occipital lobe
Secretes hormones that control the anterior pituitary gland and is major integrating center for ANS... Hypothalamus
Tract of the cerebrum that crossings from one hemisphere to the other... Commissural tracts
Tract of the cerebrum that connects different regions within the same hemisphere... Association tracts
Tract of the cerebrum that carries information between cerebrum and other parts of the body... Projection tracts
Receive input from midbrain and motor areas of cerebral cortex and send signals back to both locations... Basal nuclei
Complete and persistent absence of brain waves... Brain death
Limited to head and employ relatively complex sense organs... Special senses
Temporary state of unconsciousness from which one can awaken when stimulated... Sleep
Low levels of these may cause narcolepsy... Orexins
Damage to the ___ nerve could result in defects of eye movement... Abducens
Hearing is a function of this lobe... Temporal
Most of the brain's neurons are found here... Cerebellum
Consists of more than 100 small neural networks defined mostly by each's use of different neurotransmitters... Reticular formation
Areas of cortex that identify or interpret sensory information... Association areas
Branching pattern of white matter within the cerebellum... Arbor vitae
Area of cortex that controls the motor pattern for speech... Broca area
Right and left cerebral hemispheres are connected to each other by this thick C-shaped bundle of fibers... Corpus callosum
Muscular incoordination resulting from damage to the motor areas of the brain during fetal development, birth or infancy... Cerebral palsy
Damage to the brain typically resulting from a blow, often with loss of consciousness, disturbances of vision or equilibrium... Concussion
Inflammation of the brain... Encephalitis
Disorder causing sudden, massive discharge of neurons (seizures)... Epilepsy
Recurring headaches often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dizziness and aversion to light... Migraine headaches
A thought disorder involving delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate emotional responses to situations, incoherent speech, etc... Schizophrenia
Syndrome characterized by recurring episodes of intense stabbing pain in the trigeminal nerve with no known cause... Trigeminal neuralgia
Degenerative disorder of the facial nerve, characterized by paralysis of the facial muscles on one side... Bell palsy
Positron emission tomography... PET scan
Magnetic resonance imaging... MRI
Has the most extensive distribution of any cranial nerve... Vagus nerve
Neither hemisphere is dominant but rather each is specialized for certain tasks... Cerebral lateralization
Any language deficit resulting from lesions in the hemispheres containing the Wernicke and Broca areas... Aphasia
Responsible for recognition of spoken and written language... Wernicke area
Generates a motor program for the muscles of the larynx, tongue, cheeks and lips to produce speech... Broca area
Lesions of the basal nuclei cause these movement disorders... Dyskinesias
Intention to contract a skeletal muscle begins here... Motor association area
Distributed all over the body and employ relatively simple receptors; include touch, pressure, stretch, etc... General senses
Where we recognize faces and other familiar objects... Visual association area
Maintained by inner ear and head and eye movements... Equilibrium
Site where sensory input is first received and one becomes conscious of a stimulus... Primary sensory cortex
Inability to recall things before a brain injury... Retrograde amnesia
Inability to store new information after a brain injury... Anterograde amnesia
Process of 'teaching the cerebral cortex' until a long-term memory is established... Memory consolidation
Range of mental processes by which we acquire and use knowledge... Cognition
A person with this experiences excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue... Narcolepsy
Backtracking between stage 3 or 4 to stage 2 of sleep... Rapid eye movement sleep
Events that reoccur at intervals of about 24 hours... Circadian rhythms
Recording the electrical activity of the brain to study normal brain functions such as sleep and consciousness... Electroencephalogram
Brain waves absent during deep sleep... Alpha
Brain waves accentuated during mental activity and sensory stimulation... Beta waves
A predominance of these waves i awake adults suggests emotion stress or brain disorders.. Theta waves
A predominance of delta waves in awake ___ indicates serious brain damage... Adults
The amygdala is most likely involved in... Emotion
The hippocampus is mostly involved in... Memory
About 90% of the human cerebral cortex is a six-layered tissue called the ___... Neocortex
Dehydration stimulates the hypothalamus to produce which conserves water by reducing urine output... Antidiuretic hormone
Lesions to the ___ cause memory deficits... Mammillary nuclei
The ___ controls our 24-hour rhythm of activity Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have abnormally small ___ Cerebellum
Process by which the brain learns to ignore repetitive, inconsequential stimuli while remaining sensitive to others... Habituation
Injury to the ___ ca result in irreversible coma... Reticular formation
Contains a cardiac center, vasomotor center and respiratory centers... Medulla oblongata
Consists of tight junctions between the endothelial cells that form the capillary walls... Blood-brain barrier
Formed by tight junctions between the ependymal cells... Blood-CSF barrier
Spaces between the dura that collect blood that has circulated through the brain... Dural sinuses
Joints are also referred to as... Articulations
Science of joint structure, function and dysfunction Arthrology
Study of musculoskeletal movement Kinesiology
Branch of science which deals with a broad variety of movements and mechanical processes in the body, including physics of blood circulation, respiration and hearing Biomechanics
Where the atlas meets the occipital condyles Atlantooccipital joint
Where the glenoid cavity meets the humerus Glenohumeral joint
Where the radius meets the ulna Radioulnar joint
Bony joints, or ___, are immovable joints formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become one single bone Synostoses
A fibrous joint, or ___, is a point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone and penetrate into the other Synarthrosis
Immovable or only slightly movable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other Sutures
Sutures that appear as wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly interlock with each other by their serrated margins Serrate sutures
Sutures which occur where two bones have overlapping beveled edges, like a joint in carpentry Lap sutures
Sutures which occur where two bones have straight nonoverlapping edges Plane sutures
Attachment of a tooth to its socket Gomphosis
Holds the tooth firmly in place Periodontal ligament
A ___ is a fibrous joint at which two bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers Syndesmosis
Amphiarthrosis Cartilaginous joint
Two b ones joined by fibrocartilage Symphysis
Joint in which bones are bound by hyaline cartilage Synchondrosis
Most familiar type of joint Synovial
Most structurally complex type of joint and the most likely to develop uncomfortable and crippling dysfunctions Synovial joints
Layer of hyaline cartilage usually 2 or 3 mm thick that cover the facing surfaces of the two bones in a synovial joint Articular cartilage
Narrow space within a joint Joint cavity
Slippery lubricant found within diarthroses Synovial fluid
Outer capsule which is continuous with the periosteum of the adjoining bones in a synovial joint Fibrous capsul
Composed of mainly fibroblast-like cells that secrete lubricating fluid Synovial membrane
Pad of articulating cartilage that crosses the entire joint capsule Articular disc
Crescent shape cartilages which adsorb shock and pressure as well as help to guide the bones across each other Menisci
Attaches bone to bone Ligament
Attaches muscle to bone Tendon
Fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid Bursa
Elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendon Tendon sheath
Portion of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort Effort arm
When synovial fluid is warmed by exercise, it becomes ___ and more easily absorbed by the articular cartilage Thinner
Type of exercise that builds bone mass and strengthens the muscles that stabilize the joints Weight-bearing
Function of a ___ is to produce a gain in the speed, distance or force of a motion Lever
Ratio of output force to input force Mechanical advantage
Fulcrum in the middle; example being the atlantooccipital joint of the neck 1st-class lever
Resistance is in the middle of the effort and the fulcrum 2nd-class lever
Effort is applied between the fulcrum and resistance; paddling a canoe 3rd-class lever
Degrees through which a joint can move Range of Motion
The mandible is a ___ when we open the mouth 2nd-class lever
The mandible is a ___ when we close it to bite off a piece of food 3rd-class lever
Passes through the bone in a direction perpendicular to the plan of movement Axis of rotation
Joint which may move through all three degrees of freedom Multiaxial joint
Joint which only has one degree of freedom Monoaxial Joint
Classes of synovial joints: Shoulder and hip joints Ball-and-socket
Classes of synovial joints: Metacarpophalangeal joints Condylar
Classes of synovial joints: Concave in one direction and convex in the other, sitting on top of one another Saddle Joint
Classes of synovial joints: Found between the carpal bones of the wrist Plane Joint
Classes of synovial joints: Elbow and knee joints Hinge
Classes of synovial joints: Monoaxial joints in which a bone spin on it's longitudinal axis Pivot joints
When one is standing in AP, each joint is said to be in its ___ Zero position
Movement that decreases a joint angle Flexion
Movement that straightens a joint Extension
Further extension of a joint beyond the zero position Hyperextension
Movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body Abduction
Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline Adduction
Standing with ankles crossed, fingers crossed, etc Hyperadducted
Raising the arm high enough to cross slightly over the front or back of your head Hyperabduct
Movement that raises a body part vertically in the frontal plant Elevation
Lowers a body part in the same plane Depression
Anterior movement of a body part Protraction
Posterior movement Retraction
One end of an appendage remains fairly stationary while the other end makes a circular motion Circumduction
Movement of a bone in which it spins on its longitudinal axis Rotation
Forearm movement that turns the palm to face anteriorly or upward Supination
Forearm movement that turns the palm posteriorly or downward Pronation
Movement to the left or right of the zero position as seen in the mandible Lateral excursion
Tilts the hand toward the little finger Ulnar flexion
Means to move the thumb to touch the tip of any of the four fingers Opposition
Movement in which the toes are elevated Dorsiflexion
Foot movement that tips the soles medially Inversion
To bend backward at the waist involves ___ of the vertebral column Hyperextension
Internal and external rotation of the humerus are made possible by a ___ joint Ball-and-Socket
Least moveable joint Synostosis
Which joint has anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments? Knee
In an adult, the ischium and pubis are united by a ___. Symphysis
Science of movement Biomechanics
A ___ synovial joint allows one bone to swivel on another Pivot
Synchondroses contain what kind of cartilage? Hyaline
Symphyses contain what kind of cartilage? Fibrocartilage
The interosseous membranes between the ulna and radius as well as the tibia and fibula are examples of what type of joints? Fibrous
The knuckles of the fingers are ___ synovial joints Condylar
The knuckles of the fingers are ___ joints Synovial
The menisci of the knee are functionally similar to the ___ of the TMJ Articular disc
Adjacent bones slide over each other and have relatively limited movement Plane joint
Bone spins on its longitudinal axis Pivot joint
Carpal bones of the wrist Plane joint
Concave in one direction and convex in the other Saddle joint
Flat or only slightly concave/convex surfaces Plane joint
Metacarpophalanageal joints Condylar joint
Oval convex surface fits into a complementary shaped depression Condylar joint
Sternoclavicular joint Saddle joint
Trochlear notch of the ulna and trochlea of the humerus Hinge joint
Range of motion gives us and other primates the opposable thumb Saddle joint
Broad term for pain and inflammation of a joint Arthritis
Doctor specializing in the joints - function/dysfunction Arthrologist
The vertebrae and the intervertebral discs are what type of cartilaginous joint? Symphysis
The ___ does not actually articulate with the femur in the knee joint Fibula
A person ___ their arm if they raise it high enough to cross slightly over the front or back of the head Hyperabducts
Connective tissue that encloses a synovial cavity and retains the fluid Joint capsule
Most commonly dislocated joint in the body Shoulder
Articulations between the tibia and fibula with the talus Talocrural joint
Cause movement by pulling one bone toward another across a moveable joint Muscle Contractions
Attach muscles to bones and other connective tissues Tendons
Normally attached to the more stationary of the bones involved in a joint Origin
Largest portion of a muscle, located between the origin and the head Belly
Muscle causing an action when it contracts Agonist
Muscle which works against a movement in the opposite direction Antagonist
The shape and size of a given muscle greatly influences the degree to which it can ___ and amount of force it can generate Contract
Stabilize one or more joints crossed by the prime mover Fixator
Very broad tendon Aponeurosis
Insertion located at the superior nuchal line and mastoid process Splenius capitis
Fasciculi are shorter at the base of the neck and leave a diamond shaped area over inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebral spines Trapezius
Twisted neck; may result from injury to one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles Torticollis
Rough, raspy noise that can occur when a sleeping person inhales through mouth and nose Snoring
Stabilize they hyoid from below so the muscles above can depress the mandible Infrahyoid muscles
Attached to pubic crest and symphysis pubis Rectus abdominis
Attached to sternum and xiphoid process Transversus thoracis
Connected to inferior and superior margins of each rib Intercostalis
Elevates first and second ribs Scalenus
Stimulated by the upper lumbar nerve to laterally flex vertebral column and depress 12th rib Quadratus lumborum
Depresses scapula or elevates the ribs Pectoralis minor
Fixes clavicle or elevates first rib Subclavius
Rotates and protracts scapula and elevates the ribs Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by the ___ and the latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major
Like three muscles in one; flexing shoulder, abducting the arm, and extending the shoulder Deltoid
Primary muscles holding the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa Rotator cuff muscles
Forms the upper chest Pectoralis major
Involves forcefully closing the mouth and grinding food between teeth Mastication
Muscles completely enclosed within the system which they function in moving Intrinsic
Most the pelvic floor is formed by the coccygeus muscle and the ___ Levator ani
The ___ and the buccinator pucker the mouth Orbicularis oris
The muscle in charge of closing the eyelids and results in the wrinkles known as "crows feet" Orbicularis oculi
Depress the mandible and elevate the larynx Hyoid Muscles
Group which accounts for most of the muscle mass in the lower back Longissimus spinalis
Prime mover of the lateral group (head/neck) Sternocleidomastoid
White line running from xiphoid process to pubis composed of white connective tissue rather than muscle Linea alba
Pivot point Fulcrum
Muscle fibers arranged like the barbs of a feather along a common tendon Pennate
Fasciculi arranged in one direction along the long axis of the muscle Parallel
Muscle fibers are arranged to form a much larger base than insertion Convergent
Have fasciculi arranged in a circle around an opening and act as sphincters Circular
Rigid shaft capable of turning about a pivot point Lever
Most common lever class in the body Class III
Weight located between the fulcrum and the pull Class II
Fulcrum located between the force and the weight Class I Lever
Raises the eyebrows and furrows the skin of the forehead Occipitofrontalis
Droopy eyelid on one side due to nerve damage Ptosis
The ___ of the mandible are some of the strongest muscles of the body Elevators
Change tongue shape Intrinsic muscles
Depress, protrude, retract and depress, and elevates the tongue Extrinsic muscles
Can result from poor posture, being overweight, or from having poor fitness Lower back pain
Causes major movement produced during quiet breathing Diaphragm
Transect the rectus abdominis at three or sometimes more locations causing the muscle to appear segmented Tendinous intersections
Inferior pelvic floor Perineum
Major connection of the upper limb to the body is accomplished by ___ Muscles
Extension of the elbow is accomplished by the ___ and the anconeus Triceps brachii
Flexion of the elbow is accomplished by the brachialis, biceps brachii and ___ Brachioradialis
Can result from forceful, repetitive use of forearm extensor muscles Tennis elbow
Flex the hip, referred to in this way because of the two muscles common origin/insertion and because they produce the same movement Iliopsoas
Contributes most of the mass that can be seen as the buttocks Gluteus maximus
Means "tailor" Sartorius
Anterior thigh muscles are the ___ and the sartorius Quadriceps femoris
Longest muscle of the body Sartorius
Named because in pigs these tendons can be used to suspend hams during curing Hamstrings
Term involving any one of the four conditions associated with pain in the anterior portion of the leg Shinsplints
Plantaris joins with the superficial muscles of the posterior compartment to form the ___ Achilles tendon
To make a muscle contract more strongly, the nervous system can activate more motor units... Recruitment
Functional unit of a muscle fiber... Sarcomere
Before a muscle can contract, ATP must bind to.. Myosin head
Smooth muscles have ___ whereas skeletal muscles do not... Calmodulin
Hardening of the muscles and stiffening of the body beginning 3 to 4 hours after death... Rigor mortis
Slow oxidative fibers have an abundance of ... Glycogen
Ability to contract rhythmically and independently... Autorhythmicity
Bundles of parallel protein microfilaments within each myofibril... Myofilaments
Study of electrical activity of cells... Electrophysiology
Minimum stimulus intensity that will make a muscle contract... threshold
Neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle... Acetylcholine
Muscle contains this oxygen-binding pigment... Myoglobin
End product of anerobic fermentation that causes muscle fatigue... Lactic acid
Protein within the sarcoplasmic reticulum that binds to calcium and sotres it until the next muscle contraction... Calsequestrin
Usually forms layers in the walls of larger organs such as stomach, intestines, etc. Smooth muscle
Smallest and most abundant plasma protein in the blood... Albumin
All formed elements trace their origins to a common type of ___ in the bone marrow... Hemopoietic stem cells
Consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.... Circulatory system
Largest of the WBCs and are often about two to three times the diameter of a RBC... Monocytes
Kidney hormone that stimulates RBC production... Erythropoietin
Overall cessation of bleeding... Hemostasis
Clotting of the blood... Coagulation
Mass of platelets that forms to reduce or stop minor bleeding... Platelet plug
Prompt constriction of the broken blood vessel... Vascular spasm
Red pigment that gives RBCs their color and name... Hemoglobin
Sticky protein that adheres to the walls of a ruptured vessel... Fibrin
Contribute most to the viscosity of blood... Erythrocytes
Serum is blood plasma minus it's... Clotting proteins
Route by which blood leaves an organ... Venous drainage
Large transverse vein in the coronary sulcus... Coronary sinus
Coronary sinus empties into the... Right atrium
Consists of the heart and the blood vessels... Cardiovascular system
Contraction of any heart chamber... Systole
Relaxation of any heart chamber... Diastole
Death of cardiac tissue from lack of blood flow... Myocardial infarction
Compression of the heart by an abnormal accumulation of fluid or clotted blood in the pericardial cavity... Cardiac tamponade
Fluid accumulation in either circuit due to insufficiency of ventricular pumping... Congestive heart failure
Inflammation of the pericardium... Acute pericarditis
Any failure of a valve to prevent reflux... Valvular insufficiency
Persistent, resting heart rate of below 60 bpm... Bradycardia
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles regulate speech by rotating the... Arytenoids cartilages
Grapelike clusters of thin-walled respiratory sacs... Alveoli
Respiratory arrest would most likely result from a tumor of the... Medulla oblongata
Protects the lungs from injury by excessive inspriation... Inflation reflex
Close larynx during swallowing... Vestibular folds
Produce sounds when air passes between them... Vocal folds
Consists of those passages that serve only for airflow... Conducting division
Pulmonary infection with bacteria which invades the lungs by way of air, blood or lymph and compromises ventilation of the lungs... Tuberculosis
Created by: SavannahElkins