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UTA NURS 3632 Exam 3

UTA NURS 3632 Foundations Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
ADH Antidiuretic hormone; synthesized by hypothalamus; secreted by posterior pituitary; regulates the osmolality of the body fluids by influencing how much water is excreted in urine. (al 2013, p. 886)
RAAS Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System; regulates ECF volume by influencing how much sodium and water are excreted in urine. (al 2013, p. 887)
Aldosterone secreted by adrenal cortex; causes resorption of sodium and water; increases urinary excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. (al 2013, p. 887)
ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide; secreted by atria; opposes aldosterone; inhibits ADH by increasing the loss of sodium and water in the urine (al 2013, p. 887)
# of kg per 1 L fluid loss/retention 1 kg
Hypokalemia Low Serum Potassium (K+) Level (< 3.5 mEq/L); s/s: muscle weakness, abdominal distention, decreased bowel sounds, constipation, cardiac dysrhythmias
Hyperkalemia High Serum Potassium (K+) Level (> 5 mEq/L); s/s: muscle weakness, transient abdominal gramps and diarrhea, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest
Hypocalcemia Low Serum Calcium (Ca2+) Level (< 8.4 mg/dL); s/s: Chvostek's sign, Trousseau's sign, numbness/tingling, hyperactive reflexes, muscle twitching/cramping, tetany, seizures, larngospasm, cardiac dysrhythmias
Chvostek's sign contraction of facial muscles when facial nerve is tapped (al 2013, p. 890)
Trousseau's sign carpal spasm with hypoxia (al 2013, p. 890)
Hypercalcemia High Serum Calcium (Ca2+) Level (>10.5 mg/dL); s/s: anorexia, n/v, constipation, fatigue, diminished reflexes, lethargy, decreased LOC, confusion, personality change, cardiac dysrhythmias, flank pain, pathological fractures
Hypernatremia High Serum Sodium (Na+) Level (> 145 mEq/L); water deficit; hypertonic condition; s/s: cerebral dysfunction
Hyponatremia Low Serum Sodium (Na+) Level (< 135 mEq/L) water excess/water intoxication; hypotonic condition; s/s: cerebral dysfunction
Extracellular Fluid Volume Deficit Body Fluids Have Decreased Volume but Normal Tonicity; sodium & water intake less than ouput, causing isotonic loss
Extracellular Fluid Volume Excess Body Fluids Have Increased Volume but Normal Tonicity; sodium & water intake greater than output, causing isotonic gain
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) Fluids within cells; appx 2/3 total body water
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Fluids outside of cells; appx 1/3 total body water
Interstitial fluid Fluid that fills the spaces between most of the cells of the body and provides a substantial portion of the liquid environment of the body. (al 2013, p. 1304)
Intravascular fluid Fluid circulating within blood vessels of the body.
Transcellular fluid fluids secreted by epithelial cells (cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, and synovial)
Hypertonic Situation in which one solution has a greater concentration of solute than another; therefore the first solution exerts greater osmotic pressure.
Hypotonic Situation in which one solution has a smaller concentration of solute than another; therefore the first solution exerts less osmotic pressure.
Isotonic Situation in which two solutions have the same concentration of solute; therefore both solutions exert the same osmotic pressure.
Hypovolemia Abnormally low circulating blood volume.
Metabolic acidosis Abnormal condition of high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate. (al 2013, p. 1305)
Metabolic alkalosis Abnormal condition characterized by the significant loss of acid from the body or increased levels of bicarbonate. (al 2013, p. 1305)
Respiratory acidosis Abnormal condition characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration, excess carbonic acid, and increased hydrogen ion concentration. (al 2013, p. 1309)
Respiratory alkalosis Abnormal condition characterized by decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration and hydrogen ion concentration. (al 2013, p. 1309)
Normal Osmolality 280-300 mOsm/kg H2O
Normal Sodium 136-145 mEq/L
Normal Potassium 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Normal Calcium 8.4-10.5 mg/dL
Normal Magnesium 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Normal Chloride 98-106 mEq/L
Normal Bicarbonate Arterial 22-26 mEq/L; Venous 24-30 mEq/L
Normal Phosphate 2.7-4.5 mg/dL
Normal Fluid Intake & Output 2500 mL/day
Sodium regulation 90% in ECF; regulates water balance
Patassium regulation 98% in ICF; regulates never impulses & cardiac conduction
Calcium regulation 99% in bone; regulates bone health & blood clotting
Magnesium regulation regulates neurochemical & muscle activities
Normal pH 7.35-7.45 (concentration of hydrogen ion)
Normal BUN 10-25 mg/dL
Normal PaO2 80-100 mm Hg (partial pressure of oxygen)
Normal PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg (partial pressure of carbon dioxide)
Normal O2 saturation 95-100% (point at which hemoglobin is saturated by oxygen
Potassium-rich foods Potato & Grapefruit
Hypotonic solutions Dilutes extracellular fluid and rehydrates cells; includes D5W, 1/2NS (0.45% NS), 1/3NS
Hypertonic solutions fluid pulled from interstitial & intracellular spaces into blood stream; includes D10W, 3-5% NaCl, D5 0.9% NaCl, D50.45% NaCl, D5LR
Isotonic solutions fluid volume replacement solutions; includes NS (0.9% NaCl), LR
Adult sites for IV insertion dorsal surface of hand, inner arm
Children sites for IV insertion foot, inner arm
IV catheter size for blood/blood products 16-18 gauge
IV catheter size for fluid maintenance (adult) 22 guage
IV catheter size for fluid maintenance (older adult) 24-26 guage
IV catheter size for fluid maintenance (infant) butterfly needle
IV insertion angle 10-30 degrees
Potassium complications Cardiac dysrhythmias (NEVER give by IV push & monitor output for kidney function)
Autologous transfusion Procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a variable period before it is returned to the donor's own circulation.
Transfusion reaction Systemic response by the body to the administration of blood incompatible with that of the recipient. (al 2013, p. 1311)
Acute Intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction Infusion of ABO- incompatible whole blood, RBCs, or components containing 10 mL or more of RBCs (al 2013, p. 913)
Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction antibodies against donor or white blood cells
Sepis Bacterial contamination of transfused blood components
Tunneled CVC single, double, or triple lumen; Inserted through SQ tissue between clavicle & nipple, then into a large vein, and threaded into superior vena cava
IV Injection Incompatabilities blood, blood products, or TPN
High Alert Meds Heparin, dopamine, nitroglycerin, potassium
Team Nursing Decentralized system in which the care of a patient is distributed among the members of a team. The charge nurse delegates authority to a team leader, who must be a professional nurse.
Total Patient Care RN responsible for all aspects of care for one or more patients. The RN works directly with the patient, family, physician or health care provider, and health care team members. The model typically has a shift-based focus.
Primary Nursing patient's care is managed for the duration by one nurse who directs and coordinates other nurses and health care personnel. When on duty, the primary nurse cares for the patient directly.
Case Management Organized system for delivering health care to an individual patient or group of patients across an episode of illness and/or a continuum of care; includes plan of care, coordination of services, referral, and follow-up.
Critical pathway Tools used in managed care that incorporate the treatment interventions of caregivers from all disciplines who normally care for a patient. Designed for a specific care type, a pathway is used to manage the care of a patient throughout a projected LOS.
Functional Nursing charge nurse, med nurse, wound care nurse, nurse aide etc.
Responsibility duties and activities an individual is employed to perform
Autonomy independent decisions about patient care
Authority legitimate power to give commands and make final decisions specific to a given position
Accountability answerable for the actions
Five Rights of Delegation Right Task, Right Circumstance, Right Person, Right Direction/Communication, Right Supervision/Evaluation
Cognitive all intellectual behaviors; requires thinking; Teaching methods: discussion, lecture, Q&A, role play, discovery, independent project, field experience
Affective expression of feelings and acceptance of attitudes, opinions or values; Teaching methods: role play, discussion
Psychomotor integration of mental and muscular activity; Teaching methods: demonstration, practice, return demo, independent projects, games
Stage I Sleep very light sleep
Stage II Sleep sound sleep
Stage III Sleep initial stage of deep sleep
Stage IV Sleep very deep sleep
Stage V Sleep REM sleep
Sleep Requirements for Neonates (< 3mos) 16 hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for Infants 8-10 hrs at night plus naps; total 15 hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for Toddlers 12 hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for Preschoolers 12 hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for School Age 9-10 hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for Adolescents get appx 7 ½ hrs/day; need more
Sleep Requirements for Young Adults get 6-8 ½ hrs/day
Sleep Requirements for Middle-aged require abt 7 hrs of sleep
Sleep Requirements for Elderly require abt 6 hrs of sleep (stage IV is decreased or absent)
Insomnia chronic difficulty falling asleep with frequent awakenings at night, and/or a short sleep or nonrestorative sleep
Obstructive sleep apnea lack of airflow through nose/mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep
Central sleep apnea airway remains open, but the brain fails to send messages to the diaphragm and chest muscles to initiate respirations
Narcolepsy dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate the sleep & wake states causing excessive sleepiness during the day
Cataplexy sudden muscle weakness during intense emotions such as anger, sadness, or laughter; occurs at any time during the day
Sleep paralysis feeling of being unable to move or talk just before waking or falling asleep
Parasomnias sleep problems that are more common in children than adults; indicative of serious disorder in adults
Somnambulism sleep walking
Nocturnal enuresis bed-wetting
Bruxism teeth grinding
Infancy & early childhood sexual developmental stage gender identity
School-aged sexual developmental stage questions
Puberty/adolescence sexual developmental stage emotional & physical changes
Young adulthood sexual developmental stage emotional maturation
Middle adulthood sexual developmental stage concerns re attractiveness
Older adulthood sexual developmental stage physiological sexual response changes with aging, but aging does not lead to diminished sexuality
Spirituality Spiritual dimension of a person, including the relationship with humanity, nature, and a supreme being.
Spiritual well-being aIndividual's spirituality that enables a person to love, have faith and hope, seek meaning in life, and nurture relationships with others. (al 2013, p. 1310)
Faith Set of beliefs and a way of relating to self, others, and a Supreme Being.
Religion associated with a specific system of practice associated with a denomination, sect, or form of worship
Hope Confident but uncertain expectation of achieving a future goal.
Agnostic Individual who believes that any ultimate reality is unknown or unknowable.
Atheist Individual who does not believe in the existence of God.
Self-transcendence Sense of authentically connecting to one's inner self.
Transcendence The belief that there is a force outside of and greater than the person that exists beyond the material world. (al 2013, p. 1311)
Spiritual well-being (SWB) scale 20 items that assess the individual's view of life and relationship with a higher power (al 2013, p. 696)
BELIEF assessment tool helps nurses evaluate a child's and family's spiritual and religious needs; Belief system, Ethics or values, Lifestyle, Involvement in spiritual community, Education, Future events
Urine Specific gravity Normal 1.0053-1.030
Steatorrhea calcium binds to undigested fat in feces and is excreted, causing hypocalcemia; occurs with pancreatitis
Created by: camellia