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aphotic zone dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone where sunlight does not penetrate
benthos organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of lakes, streams or oceans
climate average year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time
commensalism symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits, but the other organism is neither helped nor harmed
competitive exclusion principle principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
ecological succession series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
estuary kind of wetland formed when a river meets an ocean
greenhouse effect process in which certain gases (carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor) trap sunlight energy in the Earth's atmosphere
habitat area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
herbivory interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers(such as plants)
keystone species single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of the community
microclimate environmental conditions within a small area that differ significantly from the climates of the surrounding areas
mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
niche full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which an organism uses those conditions
parasitism synbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and harms it
photic zone sunlit region near the surface of the water
pioneer species first species to populate an area during succession
plankton microscopic organisms that live in aquatic environments; includes phytoplankton and zooplankton
predation interaction in which one organism (the predator) captures and feeds on another organism (prey)
primary succession sucession that occurs inan area in which no trace of a previous community is present
resource any necessity of life, such as water, light, food or space
secondary succession type of succession in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances
symbiosis relationship in which two species live close together
tolerance ability of an organism to survive and reproduce under circumstances that differ from their optimal conditions
weather day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere including temperature, precipitation and other factors
wetland ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year
Created by: 88031851