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Sensory Deficits


degree of hearing loss: mild 20-40 dB, difficulty hearing soft sounds
degree of hearing loss: moderate 41-55 dB, difficulty hearing speech and perceiving words
degree of hearing loss: moderate-severe 71-95 dB
degree of hearing loss: profound 96+ dB, only hear very loud sounds, cannot hear speech
type of hearing loss: conductive (3) reduced sound transmission through outer or middle ear; primarily due to otitis media, obstruction, or malformation of ME; language outcome of recurrent otitis media somewhat controversial (likely significant delays in 1st 2 years, but not after that)
type of hearing loss: sensorineural (4) due to damage to cochlea or auditory nerve, decrease in overall loudness level, decrease in speech perception, hearing cannot be restored, language outcomes dependent to large extent on age of onset (post-lingual onset better outcome than pre-lingual)
prevalence of hearing loss at birth 1 to 6 per 1000 newborns
prevalence of profound early onset deafness 4-11 per 10,000 children
approximately ___% of children have low-frequency or high-frequency loss of at least ___dB in one or both ears. 14.9, 16
Risk factors that may lead to hearing loss (7) family history of congenital hearing loss, congenital infections (herpes, rubella), craniofacial anomaly affecting the ear, low birth weight, ototoxic medication, bacterial meningitis, mechanical ventilation for 10+ days
UNHS is the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, mandated for all newborns in MA before they go home.
UNHS age of detection is 2-3 months of age
UNHS false positive rate: 1-30%
UNHS false negative rate: 6-15%
Hearing evaluation: auditory brainstem response (ABR) test checks the brain's response to sound by checking if the auditory signal is getting to the brain and hitting all the appropriate places along the brainstem, does not rely on behavior (good for newborns)
Hearing evaluation: otoacoustic emissions (OAE) checks the inner ear response to sound by checking if sound echoes back from the cochlea, does not rely on behavior (good for newborns)
Hearing evaluation: behavioral audiometry evaluation tests the function of all parts of the ear. the person tested must be awake and cooperative (better for older)
prelingual hearing loss effect on language development (7) may have delayed or interrupted babbling, mostly typical phonological processes, vowels/tone distorted, semantic development (oral-typical but slow, ASL-typical), may have difficulty with grammatical markers, literacy compromised, pragmatics generally ok
postlingual hearing loss effect on language development (3) language/communication foundation set, vowels/tone will change, higher-level skills/acquisition of new skills may show delay or deficit
Hearing loss: intervention considerations (6) early is better, difficulty with academics, esp. reading and math, gap between C w/ hearing loss and hearing peers widens, develop FUNCTIONAL goals, informated decision about treatment approach by fam, outcomes vary with age of implementation and modality
Hearing loss: intervention options (therapy) (5) auditory-oral, auditory-verbal, bilingual, cued speech, total communication
auditory-oral (hearing loss intervention) natural gestures, listening, speech (lip) reading, speech
auditory-verbal (hearing loss intervention) listening, speech
bilingual (hearing loss intervention) american sign language (ASL) and english
cued speech (hearing loss intervention) cueing, speech (lip) reading
total communication (hearing loss intervention) signing exact english (SEE), finger spelling, listening, natural gestures, speech reading, speech
Hearing loss: intervention options (insert) amplification (hearing aids, FM system), appropriate for mild to moderate-severe hearing loss; or cochlear implants
sensorineural hearing loss causes aging, exposure to loud sounds, toxins, congenital reasons, traumatic brain injury
behavioral hints of hearing loss delay in babbling or lang acq in general, lack of eye contact/lack of response when addressed, only respond when face-to-face, may not startle to loud noises
legally blind definition less than 20/200 vision in better eye after best correction, or field of vision of <20 degrees
the totally blind learn via Braille or other non-visual means
visual impairment-considerations (3) age of onset & degree of impairment, loss of access to visual info, assumption of normal lang dev
effect of visual impairment on lang dev (6 -prag) reliance on other sense to acquire language and knowledge, imitation troubles, first word delay, vocab dev diff (delay in understanding meaning, delay in acq), confused personal pronoun use (refer to self in 2nd or 3rd), syntax (typical MLU by age 3)
effect of visual impairment on lang dev: pragmatics language use for solitary play, less initiation, higher incidence of echolalia, potential ToM deficits. Ultimately reach typical levels, but difficulties in social pragmatics may persist
visual impairment: intervention strategies (6) family education, create lang rich environment, amplify or emphasize meanings, respond to C's non-verbal communication, ask questions, model pretend play
etiologies of deaf-blindness (2) rubella syndrome, usher syndrome (recessive, genetic)
deaf-blindness intervention strategies maximize independence as much as possible: use signaling, tactile finger spelling or touch-signing, print/braille, tactile communication boards, computer-assisted tech
Created by: 100000299709410