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AP Bio RCHS final

AP Biology final review

What is the difference between negative and positive feedback? Negative feedback: accumulation of an end product of a process slows the production of that product Positive feedback: product speeds up its production
Why does the polar covalent nature of water lead to hydrogen bonding? Oxygen is very electronegative attracting the shared electrons more strongly than the Hydrogen does. This unequal sharing causes the Oxygen to have slight negative charge and the Hydrogen, a slight positive charge. The positive Hydrogens are attracted the
How does the property of high specific heat affect water? High specific heat; it takes a lot of energy to change the temp of a subtance. This property helps to maintain homeostasis and it keeps ocean temperatures relatively constant as it takes so much energy to change the temperature of water
Why is there so much energy in ATP? All the Phosphates are negatively charged and crowded together. The charge repulsion results in the instability of the molecule and requires lots of energy to hold them together in ATP.
What is the tertiary structure in the formation of proteins? It is the overall shape of a single polypeptide resulting from the interactions between R groups
How is glucose stored in different organisms? In plants, glucose is stored as starch to store excess glucose. In animals, glucose is stored as glycogen in muscles and liver cells
What is the function of an accessory pigment? To absorb other wavelengths of light that chlorophyll doesn't absorb and transfer the energy to chlorophyll.
Why is photorespiration harmful? When there is insufficient carbon dioxide, oxygen binds to the RUBP and it goes through the whole cycle “burning” the NADPH and ATP energy, but produces no glucose
What does cholesterol do as part of the cell membrane? When the temperature is cooler, it makes the cell membrane more fluid, when it's hotter, it helps keep the membrane stiff.
Why does replicating DNA require DNA ligase rahter than just DNA Polymerase and helicase? DNA Polymerase has to read 3'to 5', so there's a lagging strand that is replicated in Okazaki fragments that are put together by DNA Ligase.
Why is it important that organisms maintain homeostasis? Because, most enzymes in their body have a specific operating temperature/PH, so to keep enzymes and body processes working, organisms must maintain a constant internal environment.
What are 4 differences between archea bacteria and eubacteria? Archea bacteria have introns, histones in DNA,resistance to certain antibiotics, multiple types of RNA polymerase, and survive at extreme temp./ph.
What are two ways a plant can prevent water-loss if they live in a dry environment. By doing CAM or C4 methods of Photosynthesis, which allows the plants to close their stomata at times to prevent transpiration from occuring. Also reduced leaf size and stomata on the underside of the leaf help.
Why does yeast make bread rise? It feeds off the sugar in the bread and undergoes anaerobic respiration producing C02 and alcohol, CO2 gas causes bubbles making bread rise, and burning off of alchol gives bread a sweet smell.
What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells? Embryonic stem Cells are totipotent, they can give rise to any kind of cell, whereas adult stem cells are pluripotent, they can only give rise to a few different types of cells.
Why is receptor mediated endocytosis important? it allows the cell to obtain large amounts of a specific substance even if the substance, by having receptor proteins that "catch" the needed substance and fall into "coated pits" on the membrane.
Genetic drift affects what types of populations the most? Small populations are more susceptible to the random events of genetic drift either via reduction in population size (bottleneck) or splinter populations (founder)
What is one idea for how the first life came about? Organic molecules, formed polymers, then aggregated to form protobionts that could absorb other organic molecules and grow and divide, then they eventually developed a mechanism of inheritance, perhaps mRNA.
What is the main function of the Calvin Cycle? To fix the carbon to create glucose and other organic compounds using the energy captured in the light reactions.
What is the term for the phenomenon in the plant life cycle that causes a plant to switch between a sporophyte and gametophyte form? Alternation of generations
What are the three mechanisms that contribute to genetic variation? Independent assortment, crossing over, random fertilization
Which two scientists are credited with the discovery of the double helix shape of DNA? James Watson and Francis Crick
What is the key difference between microevolution and macroevolution? Microevolution refers to the evolutionary changes (often in allele frequency) within a population, while macroevolution looks at changes in phylogeny over much longer periods of time.
Which phylum is most closely related to the phylum that humans belong to? Echinodermata (closely related to Chordata--both deuterostomes)
What are the three domains we categorize all life into? Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukarya
Which phylum does not have tissues? Porifera
What is the function of homeotic genes? Determine the positioning and placement of various body parts by triggering the genes that make an appendage in certain segments.
What are the four kinds of macromolecules? Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates
What are four pieces of evidence for the endosymbiotic theory? mitochondria have circular DNA, are the same size as bacteria, divide by binary fission, have ribosomes that are the bacteria type of ribosome, double membrane, divide on their own schedule
What are five types of cell membrane proteins? receptor, marker, enzymatic, transport, channel, adhesion,
What are four differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prok: no nuclues, no membrane bound organelles (mito/chloroplast), no endomembrane system (ER, golgi, lysosome etc.), are smaller, divide by binary fission, have ciruclar DNA, different sized ribosomes, flagella made differently with no microtubules
What are two differences between C4 and CAM plants? C4 fix carbon during the day and night but keep carbon dioxide levels high by using spatial separation in the bundle sheath cells, CaM fixes carbon at night and then uses the 4C molecules to supply carbon dioxide for during the day.
What the three "modes of natural selection" directional, stabilizing, diversifying/disruptional
what are the four features of all chordata? notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, post anal tail, pharyngeal gill slits.
When does epistasis occur? Epistasis is when two genes work together to determine a trait. It is nonadditive unlike polygenic inheritance.
What structures form in plants when cytokinesis occurs? In animals? A cell plate forms in plants, while a cleavage furrow (microfilament belt) forms in animals.
What are the phases of the cell cycle? Mitosis Interphase(G1, S, and G2) and cytokinesis
What happens to the organism when a homeotic mutation occurs? There will be changes in patterns of body parts, ex. legs growing in place of antennae or an extra set of wings.
What are the two types of communicating junctions and what are their functions? Gap junctions are narrow tunnels b/w animal cells that allows the exchange of small molecules. The plasmodesmata do the same for plant cells.
To survive, plants should be _______ to their environment. Hypertonic, to sustaing turgor pressure
How do angiosperms differ from other plants? Only angiosperms produce flowers and fruits.
In protein synthesis, what happens to the mRNA molecule before it leaves the nucleus? A 5' cap is added to provide stability to the mRNA and a point of attachment for the small subunit of the ribosome, a poly-A tail is added to provide stability and controls the movement of mRNA across the nuclear envelope, and the introns are removed.
What is a Barr body? An inactive X chromosome that remains coiled during embryonic development in female mammals (when X-inactivation occurs).
If a cell has 46 chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis, then at anaphase I there would be ___ chromosomes. 46, 2 piles of 23 but they are still not surrounded by a nucleus and separated so 46. After meiosis I then each cell has 23 big ones.
What is the process of creating ATP from a gradient of hydrogen ions? Chemiosmosis, pump out/in H+ and then allow them to cross to make ATP (proton motive force)
What are the products of glycolysis? 2NADHs, net gain of 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvates
What is pleiotropy? When one allele can affect many characteristics in an organism. (like sickle-cell anemia)
What are phopholipids made of? a glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, and one phosphate group "head"
What are the 4 nitrogen bases in RNA? adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil
What are the 4 phases of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Describe the outcome of disruptive selection. the most extreme of a trait in a species is favored, so the intermediates of the trait do not survive as well (also diversifying selection)
On the pH scale, what is acidic, what is basic, and what is neutral? 1-6 is acidic, 7 is neutral, and 8-14 is basic
What are the parts to an amino acid? an amino group, a carboxyl gourp, central carbon, a H bonded, and an R group
What is paedomorphosis? the retention of embryonic traits in adulthood at sexual maturity(ex. adult salamanders retaining their gills as adults)
What type of fermentation occurs in the muscles of humans, and what is the product of it? Lactic acid fermentation; product is lactic acid
What is the element unique to the protein macromolecule group, and what type of bond does it form in proteins' structures? sulfur; disulfide bridge
What type of development do deuterostomes have? Radial and indeterminate
How is water pulled up a plant's xylem? Include properties of water in your explanation. Water transpires out of the stomata, but as it does so it "sticking" to its nearby partners due to hydrogen bonding (cohesion). Each molecule of water is "tugged" upward as the molecule at the top evaporates. (transpiration/cohesion)
Why is global warming so dangerous for organisms even though populations can evolve to new situations? The predicted temperature of the earth in the future is not so worrisome--the rate at which this temperature is rising is too rapid for organisms to adapt to.
What class would a great white shark fall into? Chondrichthes
What type of protist is Pfsteria? Dinoflagellate
what does Amylase do? breaks down starches, sailvary amylase in mouth/pancreatic amylase in duodenum.
Haploid male honeybees arise from what process? Parthogenesis
List the order of phases in the ovulation cycle in human females. Follicular, then luteal
What is the alternative for mammals to the menstrual cycle in humans. The estrous cycle
What are two body forms of Cnidarians? Polyp and Medusa
What are the two steps to gene expression? Transcription and Translation
Name are the levels of classification in order from specific to general. Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain
What is the difference between Obligated aerobes and Facultative anaerobes? Facultative anaerobes use Oxygen if present, but can also preform anaerobic respiration or fermentation if Oxygen is not present.
What is the difference between protostomes and deuterostome in terms of mouth formation? In protostomes, the mouth forms from the blastopore. In dueterostomes, the mouth forms from a secondary opening.
What are the two types of fermentation? Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
What is incomplete dominance? Neither allele for the gene has complete dominance and the offspring is a mixture of the two. (pink flowers when red and white alleles are present in hetrozygous plants)
What are three types of point mutations? an insertion, substitution and a deletion. insertion/deletion lead to frame shift
What is transduction? When new DNA is introduces into the genome of a bacterium by a virus.
What is countercurrent exchange? the diffiusion of substances between two regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions which leads to more efficient exchange of heat or oxygen.
What is the difference between mutualism and parasitism? In mutualism both organisms benefit whereas in parastism, one organism benefits at the other organism's expense
What does hybrid vigor describe? the superior quality of offspring resulting from crosses bewteen two different strains of organisms (mutt is superior to purebreds)
What is sexual dimorphism? the difference in the appearance of males and females (cardinal females are brown not red like the males)
What makes up an RNA nucleotide? nitrogen base, ribose sugar, and a phosphate
What is the shape of DNA? double helix
What is the photosynthetic cycle that does not need light? Calvin cycle or light independent reactions
What kind of relationship does Coral and Zooxanthellae have? Symbiotic Relationship (mutualism)
Name three characteristics of Diatoms Unicellular, encased in silica, photosynthetic
Explain Gel Electrophoresis DNA = negative charge, placed in negative field, smaller pieces move to positive end faster as they can wiggle through gel better.
What items are necessary for Gel Electrophoresis? Agarose, buffer, tray, gel combs, cover, electrical leads, gel tank, power supply, and DNA selection
What term explains relative fitness which includes fitness of close relatives? Kin Selection
What is the term for all of the alleles for all the loci in all individuals of the population? Gene Pool
What is the evolutionary significance of double fertilization in plants? It allows the seed to have both a baby and food at the same time
Name the four criteria known as Koch's Postulate 1. isolate what's causing disease in infected animals 2. Grow in a culture 3. Induce disease in healthy organism 4. Identify and isolate again
What are ribozymes? RNA that helps facilitate reactions that would allow for more efficient cellular processes in cells before DNA existed.
What is the function of an endospore Allows bacteria to stay dormant for a period of time to avoid extinction
What is the difference between conjugation, transformation, and transduction? Conjugation is when bacteria get DNA from another prokaryote, transformation is when the DNA comes from the surrounding environment, and transduction is when the DNA is transmitted by a virus
What is a lichen? A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacteria
What is mycorrhizal symbiosis? Symbiosis between fungus and the roots of a vascular plant
What are the reactants and products in Photosynthesis? Reactants:6 CO2 and 6H2O Products: C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is one advantage and disadvantage of being a hermaphrodite? Adv: Mating can be done with any and every organism in that species, increasing chances of mating Disadv: Self fertilization can occur which decreases genetic variation
What is the purpose of heating up the DNA while using a PCR machine? TO denature the DNA and separate it into 2 strands in order to make complimentary parts for copying
What elements make up each macromolecule? carbohydrates: C, H, O lipids: mostly C and H, some O proteins: C, H, O, N, S Nucleic acids: C, H, O, N, P
What are 4 qualities of water? 1) High heat of vaporization and heat of fusion 2) Adhesion and cohesion 3) High specific heat 4) Polar 5) universal solvent 6) surface tension
Why are polar bodies formed? There is not enough cellular material to make 4 viable eggs, so the majority of the cellular material is left for the actual egg, while the chromosomes that are not chosen for the egg from the mother are stored in tinier sacs called polar bodies
Why is condensation of the chromosomes before cell division important? It would be do difficult to manipulate chromosomes in mitosis because it would be too tangled if they weren't wound up first.
What is Euchromatin? Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin and is rich in gene concentration that is ready for transcription
What is an advantage of a coelom? It allows for a cavity in the body specifically to give space for organs to evolve and grow into. later becomes thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Describe non-disjunction. How does it relate to Down-syndrome? Non-Disjunction is when the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not properly separate during meiosis I or the sister chromatids do not separate properly during meiosis II. Down-syndrome is a trisomy of the 21st chromosome.
Describe the relation between the words cdk, mpf, and cyclin. The cyclin molecules bind to the cdks to form an mpf complex which promotes mitosis by phosphoralyation of proteins. Eventually, the cyclin is degraded leaving behind the cdk to be used again.
Cyclin levels rise during which phase(s)? Cyclin levels rise during the S and G2 phases and abruptly falls during the M phase.
Describe the role of tumor-suppressor genes? Tumor-supressor genes are genes whose normal products inhibit cell division. Their proteins prevent uncontrolled cell growth in cancer. "guardian angel p53 gene is example"
What is a molecular clock? A tool for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on observation that mutation number in certain common genes and other regions of the genomes appear to evolve at constant rates
Describe the advantages of fruits. The adaptation of fruits help enhance seed dispersal because seeds are able to be carried farther away from their parent plant via animals and wind. Fruits encase the seed until it is ready to mature
Describe plant vascular tissues. Xylem is composed of dead cells for transport of water, phloem is for the transport of foot (remember: UP the Xylem, DOWN the phloem)
In what type of environment are paramecium typically found in? Paramecium are typically found in a hypotonic environment (fresh water); they have adapted by using a bladderlike contractile vacuole to remove the excess water
Diatoms are made of what? Radiolarians are made of what? Foraminiferans and coccolithophores coverings are made of what? What do forams contribute to? Diatoms and Radiolarians are made of Hydrated Silica. Forams are made of calcium carbonate, hence make up the calcareous ooze at the bottom of bodies of water.
If the p-value is less than or equal to 5%, do you accept the null or alternative hypothesis? Alternative as you are greater than 95% sure that the differences you see are real, so you can reject the null that they are the same.
What phylum is asymmetric? Porifera
What hormones are released by the pancreas? When are they released? Insulin is released when blood sugar is high, and glucagon is released when blood sugar is low.
What is the difference between prezygotic and postzygotic mechanisms? Prezygotic prevents the formation of zygotes and postzygotic prevents the functioning and development of zygotes. Both are modes of reproductive isolation
What five conditions must be met in a Hardy Weinberg population? Large breeding population and no genetic drift, mating is random, no mutation of alleles, no differential migration, no selection
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions? By lowering the activation energy
Who discovered the 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases? Erwin Chargaff
What type of macromolecules are steroids? Lipids
What organelle contains catalases? What is the function of this enzyme? peroxisomes; break down hydrogen peroxide as it is made at times during cellular respiration and would be toxic if not broken down.
What polysaccharide is the cell wall in plants made of? cellulose
What are some ways that cell death can be beneficial or even essential to the development of a multicellular organism? What is the term for this? 1. The eventual cell death in the womb turns webbed fingers and a post anal tail into average human bodies. 2. Death and shedding of skin cells helps to cool bodies. Apoptosis
Name a cell process that uses ATP to bring in large materials across the cell membrane to form a vesicle. Endocytosis: energy from ATP breakdown is used to transform proteins, allowing them to preform endocytosis.
what are the only two phyla in kingdom animalia that are deuterostomes? echinodermata and chordata
what are the only two phyla in kingdom animalia that are pseudocoelomates? nemadota and rotifera
four chambered hearts are found in _____? birds and mammals
three chambered hearts are found in ______? adult amphibians and most reptiles
two chambered hearts are found in ______? fish and larval amphibians
stomata are controlled by _____ ______? guard cells, open when they swell due to K+ being pumped in which leads to water coming in.
the fruit of a plant is the ripened _____? ovary
sea urchins and brittle stars are examples of organisms from what phylum? echinodermata
What is the function of the corpus luteum? The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen to maintain the thickness of the endometrium.
What does the hypothalamus release to begin the reproductive cycle? GnRH
Which hormone is important for the eventual the release of the ovum from the follicle LH. (ovulation)
What signals the endometrium to thicken? Estrogen
What structure does the ovum travel through to reach the uterus? Oviduct/ Fallopian tube.
What chemical is used in animals to attract a mate or signal the desire to mate? Pheromones.
the transfer of pollen to the ovule of a seed plant pollination
the retention of embryo or larval qualities in an adult paedomorphisis
what is cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
Which division of plants have no vascular tissues and need sperm for feritilization Bryophyta; mosses
What evidence is there for plants evolving from charophytes? same % of cellulose in cell walls, DNA, sperm structure, and mitosis and cytokinesis.
In plant's alternation of generations what is made by meiosis? haploid spores
What is bacteria cell walls made of? Peptidoglycan
What are different terms associated with bacterial reproduction? Binary fission, transformation, conjugation, transduction, mutation, and endospores.
What is an example of a monocot? Grass and relatives like corn.
In double fertilization what the polar nuclei become after fertilization? Triploid endosperm-food
What does calcitonin do? Lowers blood calcium levels by taking in calcium in the bone and lowering levels of absorption in the kidney so some passes out in urine.
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine triphosphate.
What does diploblastic or triploblastic mean? diploblastic- 2 germ layers triploblastic- 3 germ layers
What causes red tides? Dinoflaggelate, pfsteria (probably spelled wrong)
What does a PCR do? what is needed to do it? amplify copies of dna, (taq polymerase, primer, nucleotides, original sample in a thermocycler)
Process to make RNA from DNA template Transcription
What nucleotide does RNA not use T, Thymine
Purpose of cytoskeleton helps organism maintain shape and protection for the cell, movement of materials, contraction of cell, changing shape of cell, cleavage furrow in cytokinesis
function of stamen male part of flower: pollen production
the Kreb's cycle produces how many molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose 2
purpose of myelin sheath with neurons increases speed of impulses
if an egg is not fertilized in humans, what cycle gets rid of it menstrual
what pathway converts glucose into pyruvate? glycolysis
What process converts NADH back to NAD without producing energy but allows for cellular respiration to continue in the absence of oxygen? fermentation
What is cAMP important for? second messenger in the signal transduction pathway.
What is the term for amount of something per time? rate
over time if a substrate and enzyme are left in container, describe the rates of reaction? fast at the beginning but then slowing as substrate becomes more scarce
Feedback inhibition is common in what type of feedback? negative feedback
What happens to biodiversity if a population is reduced in size? Nothing, number of species is the same. Genetic diversity would be reduced as gene pool is smaller.
The Bohr effect causes hemoglobin to release oxygen more readily as what changes? pH. As the pH lowers it relases as places with lower oxygen are more likely to have lower pH due to lactic acid formation
Which type of life strategy would involve less babies, more parental care, and longer generation times? K selected (carrying capacity)
What statistical test is used to compare the observed data from the lab with some expected data? chi square
What aspects of graph are always included? title, labeled axes, units on axes, best fit line (almost always), and equal increments on axes.
What two areas of the world are more effected by global warming than others and why? inland: specific heat of water will keep oceans more constant in temperature arctic: albedo will lower so as ice melts postitive feedback loop will cause more heat to be absorbed and even more melting.
What is a bacteriophage and which experiment utilized this to show DNA was important? baceteria infecting virus used in hershey chase experiment to show that DNA entered and protein coat stayed on the outside of the cell
In the lac operon what do the represser and RNA polymerase bind to respectively? represser: binds to operator DNA blocking promoter RNA polymerase binds to promoter.
What operon is a repressible operon? trp operon: it is always on unless tryptophan is present then it binds to represser to turn it off (represses the operon)
What operon is an inducible operon? lac operon: off unless lactose is present to act as an inducer which binds to the represser removing it from the operator.
What type of control is the operon system? transcriptional control
How does one neuron stimulate a second neuron? Calcium is released as the impulse travels down neuron 1 causing vesicles of neurotransmitter to be released by exocytosis. The receptor on neuron 2 if changed allowing Na ions to enter generating the impulse there.
What is the role of calcium in muscle contraction? binds to tropinin protein which moves the fiberous protein (tropomysoin) away from the binding sites so that the thick (myosin) filament head can bind to the thin (actin) filament that is attached to the walls of the sarcomere, pulling the walls closer.
What nuerotransmitter stimulates the muscle cell membrane? acetylcholine: released by the nueron stimulate motor neurons
What is quorum sensing? Bacteria being able to detect how many other bacteria are in the area based on chemical quantities. This leads to biofilm formation.
What is at the base of every phylogenetic tree? common ancestor; ultimately the first cell unless tree only shows one portion of the tree of life.
What are the subunits that make up cellulose? glucose (beta form) : alpha form in starch allows for digestion
What hormone(s) induce the flight or fight response when the environment changes to present a threat? Norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline), leads to increased heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, dilation of pupils, senativity of nerves, lower digestive/reproductive processes
What's another name for anitbodies? Immunoglobins; four polypeptides held together in y shape (globular protein)
If species mate at different times of the year, what kind of reproductive isolation is occurring? prezygotic: specifically temporal
What are characteristics of meiosis? Not stages themselves. chromosome reduction (half), forms gametes in animals, two rounds, crossing over in prophase I when tetrad forms, first round Xs move to other side and second round Xs separate
What is the process of making ATP from ADP and P, using energy from light, and starting in photosystem 2? Noncyclic Photophosphorylation, in the light reactions which makes ATP and NADPH for the light independent reactions
Why does CAM photosynthesis occur in plants in environments similar to where cacti live? Photosynthesis can occur during the day while the stomata are closed, greatly reducing H20 loss as the carbon was fixed at night when it is cooler
What does the hydroxyl functional group as seen on sugars and alcohols look like? -OH (not charged as it is attached to molecule.
What makes up triglyceride and examples? A glycerol and three fatty acids. examples: fats, oils, waxes
Hydrogen bonding form alpha helices and beta sheets relates to what type of structure of proteins? secondary structure, tertiary is more complicated and involves all kinds of bonds.
ADH is: what type of hormone and what function? peptide hormone that causes the kidneys to retain more water (anti-diuretic hormone); altered by alcohol which then leads to dehydration
Why does a belly flop hurt? surface tension is the resistance to an object entering liquid due to the "skin" formed by the attraction of like molecules. belly flop has more surface area than normal dive so more H bonds and all at once.
What is a REDOX reaction? Reaction where electrons are transferred: OIL RIG (electron transport chain/ electron carriers like NADH and FADH2)
What is type of hormone is Oxycontin, and what is the target tissue and its role? Peptide uterus promotes labor contractions
Why is sweating such an effective repsonse to environmental change by cooling the body? The high heat of vaporization means that a great deal of energy is taken from the skin to evaporate the sweat as water's hydrogen bonds make it difficult to spread apart into a gaseous state.
What is the name for this process: One monomer provides a hydroxyl group while the other provides a hydrogen atom to form a water molecule Condensation/Dehydration reaction
What is the name for this process: bonds between monomers are broken by adding water hydrolysis
How do Phospholipids differ from traditional triglycerids? 2 fatty acids instead of 3 with third carbon on glycerol bound to phosphate group
What are 5 functions of membrane proteins? •transport •enzymatic activity •signal transduction •intercellular joining •cell-cell recognition •ECM attachment
What is the term for the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia and what two organisms do it? cyanobacteria in ocean, rhizobia bacteria on land: NOT legumes, they just have the bacteria living in their root nodules
What’s a knockout gene? Gene that is disabled in a model organims like a mouse to determine what its function is and then to do experiment with drugs to see if remedies can be found.
Explain the selecting agent and the screening agent in genetic engineering. Selecting agent is the gene that determines if plasmid gets into the bacterium; such as amp resistance. The screening agent is the gene that determines if the new gene got into the plasmid when altering it
What is the difference between exergonic reactions and endergonic reactions? Exergonic release energy while endergonic require energy, so for exergonic products have more free energy and vice versa for endergonic on energy curves.
Why can't exergonic reactions go spontanously if the products have less energy than the reactants? activation energy "energy hill" must be climbed before releasing the energy. Must strike a match to release the energy.
What are the three advantages of asexual reproduction? 1) easier and faster 2) no loss of energy on mating cycles, finding a mate 3) no genetic variation, so uniformity allows organisms to find a niche where they can function optimally
What are proteins that come out of the Rough ER most commonly used for/as? Secretion/ creation of lysosomes/ replacement of membrane proteins, whereas free ribosomes make proteins for use within the cell
Name the molecules included in “CAPORG”. CO2, Acetyl CoA, Pyruvate (PGAL), Oxaloacetate, RuBP, Glucose
Name an advantage of having organelles in a cell. Compartmentalization or specialization or surface area to volume ratio increased
What is the probability that two parents who are both heterozygous for 4 traits (AaBbCcDd) will have an offspring that is heterozygous for at least one trait? 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 (chance of begin homozygous for all four. SO 15/16 heterozygous for at least one
How many different gametes can be made from AaBbCc? 8 ABC, ABc, AbC,aBC, abc, abC, aBc, Abc
How are hormones different from pheromones? Hormones stay inside the body while pheromones affect influence behaviors outside of the body in another member of the species
What direction does mRNA get made in? 5' to 3' just like all nucleic acids with phosphate being 5' end and sugar's OH being 3' end
Where are the Islets of Langerhan located and what is made there? pancreas, glucagon and insulin
What is the amino group? -NH2 which binds to COOH carboxyl group
What are three environmental conditions that effect the rate of reaction using enyzmes? temperature (heat denatures, cold slows), salinity, and pH
If a 10 ml of oxygen is produced from the 2 minute point to the 4 minute point and then 5ml of oxygen is made between the 4 minute and 6 minute mark, what are the relative rates of reaction for 2-4 min and 4-7 min and the overall rate from 2-7 min? 5ml/min 1.7ml/min and overall: 3ml/min
When adding enzyme to a test tube to increase the reaction rate, eventually the enzyme addition has no effect, why might this be? either enzyme saturation: no more space for enzyme to make contact with substrate, or the substrate has all been broken down.
What does it mean when it is said that enzymes are reusable and substrate is not? enzyme is unchanged by the reaction, so it is still functional, whereas substrate is changed by the reaction into product and therefore can't react again?
What is the effect of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on the accessibility of a chromosome for transcription of its genes? histone acetylation: loosens histone "grip" on DNA so it is more accessible. DNA methylation as seen in Barr Bodies where an X chromosome is inactivated, blocks the accessibility
What is the allele frequency in a hardy Weinberg population for the dominant allele within the population if 16 out of 100 have the recessive trait? q2=.16 so q =.4 so p = .6 p represents the dominant allele
If there are 8 groups being tested in a chi square test, what are the degrees of freedom? 7 (n-1)
If the X square value is larger than the critical value where p=.05 then what would you say about the null hypothesis? if the X2 is large the p value is smaller than 0.05 and that means that you would be more than 95% sure something is going on and you could reject the null. Big X2 is big difference between expected and observed.
If a cell mass started with a mass of 0.6mg and ended up with a mass of 0.4mg, what is the percent change? .4-.6/.6 = -.33 or -33% change. Negative indicates loss in mass
What is needed to have quaternary structure in a protein and why is this considered post translational control? 2 or more polypeptides need to come together and interact. The polypeptides have to be translated before this can happen so a cell could control production of protein by blocking the interaction of these polypeptides.
What binds to the promoter to assist the RNA polymerase to bind? Transcription factors at the TATA box
What molecules break the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA? restriction enzymes (cut) the phosphate/sugar backbone
How many different nucleotides are found in an active nucleus? 5 (RNA would be in nucleus too) ATCGU
Why does hemoglobin let go of oxygen in the muscle tissues whereas it attaches to the oxygen in lung capillaries? partial pressure of oxygen is high in lungs and low in muscles, so hemoglobin disassociation curve allows us to see that most of the hemoglobin will give up its oxygen in low partial pressures. pH in muscles may also be low leading to more disassociation
What three gases are the primary greenhouse gases? water, methane, and carbon dioxide
Why are controlled variables used in an experiment? To make sure only one independent variable exists between the two groups, so when there is a difference it can be said to correlate with the independent variable.
Which law of Mendels says that homologous chromosomes separate with only one going into each gamete? law of segregation
How does KOH allow a respirometer measure the cellular respiration of small organisms such as beans? KOH reacts with carbon dioxide to make a solid product that exerts no pressure on the chamber walls, therefore as oxygen is used and replace with carbon dioxide the CO2 is removed and the pressure drops proportionally.
DPIP absorbs electrons as they move down the ETC in photosynthesis, so it is blocking the formation of what molecule as it measures the rate of light reactions by changing color? NADPH (final electron acceptor)
If a male with a sex linked trait mates with a female carrier, what is the probability that the female produced would have the trait? Xhy (male has it) with XHXh (female carrier) so XhXh would occur in half the females
What part of the flower becomes the seed and fruit respectively after double fertilization? ovule, ovary
Pholem carries food for a plant from source to sink, what does this mean? Source: where it is made is hypertonic (lots of sugar) and therefore it moves away from this to where it going to be stored or used: sink
What is the role of tRNA in translation? move an amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome to make sure it lines up with the appropriate codon instruction.
What type of virus acts immediately? lytic virus
What cell part is responsible for calcium storage in muscles and lipid synthesis? ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
What are the functional units of the lungs, muscles, kidney, and brain respectively? alveoli, sarcomere, nephron, neuron
Where would you find the apical meristem in a plant and what is happening there? root tip and shoot tip: cell division
Where would you find the vascular cambium in a plant and what is happening there? Around the outside of a dicot as it is doing cell division to make new vascular tissue. The old xylem in the center we would call wood, and phloem is on the outside.
What two processes are "at odds" in a plant when it is controlling it stomatal openings? transpiration: losing water: bad carbon dixoide entry for photosynthesis: good
How would you describe the chromosome complement of most cells in a fungus? haploid
How does a human use negative feedback to control his or her body temperature? shivering when too cold so cellular respiration increases which "wastes off" heat sweating when warm to have more evaporation which heat is absorbed from the body: also vasodialation and vasoconstriction to control body heat
What two hormones control the calcium blood levels and which leads to osteoporosis? calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. PTH causes calcium to come out of bone when levels are low
What organ makes bile and detoxifies the body? liver
What organ is responsible for most of the chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients? small intestine: specifically duodenum of small intestine for the digestion
What cells "trigger" both the cell mediated and humoral response? helper T cells
IN the t test lab with senses, what would the p value have to be to reject the null? less than 0.05
How many different experiments were conducted in the t-test lab? 3: A vs B, B vs. C, A vs. C
What is the measure of the variation of the data within a set? standard deviation
What three aspects of the data are included in determining a t test? size of sample, variation of sample, standard deviation of the sample.
What is the equation for the chi-squared test? The sum of the difference between the observed results and the expected results squared divided by the expected value
During an action potential for a neuron, ____ enters the cell and ____ leaves. Na+, K+
Created by: whamesjr