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Phlebotomy 115 Week 7

Specimen Labeling Patient's Name, Patien ID #, Date, Time of Collection, Type of Specimen, Attending Physicians Name
Specimen Labeling Never on the Lid
Routine Urinalysis Determining the status of the kidneys and their function
Part 1 of Urinalysis Physical Analysis
Physical Analysis Color
Physical Analysis Transparency (vs. cloudiness)
Physical Analysis Concentration through specific gravity
Specfic Gravity Concentration or # of particles when compared to deionized water
Specific Gravity - deionized water 1.000
Specific Gravity - Normal Urine 1.005 - 1.030
Part 2 of Urinaysis Chemical Analysis
Urine Odor Normal
Foul, pungent odor Bacterial infection
Fruity Odor Keytones
Yellow/straw color Normal/urochrome
Red or brownish or pinkish color Blood or "hematuria"
Brown or Black color Caused by the acid reacting to hemoglobin or melanin (advanced cases of melanoma)
Gold or yellowish-brown color Suspec bilirubin - usually due to liver damage and/or hepatitis
Protein in Urine Kidney disease
Protein in Urine Prolonged exercise
Protein in Urine Chemical poisoning
Protein in Urine Prolonged Exercies
Hemoglobin in Urine Kidney disease
Hemoglobin in Urine Severe burns
Hemoglobin in Urine Chemical poisoning
Bilirubin in Urine Liver disease
Bilirubin in Urine Obstructive Jaundice
Glucose in Urine Diabetes mellitus
Leukocytes in Urine Infection of the kidney
Leukocytes in Urine Infection of the urinary bladder
Leukocytes in the Urine Infection of the urethra
Keytone bodies in the Urine Diabetes mellitus
Keytone bodies in the Urine Starvation
Not a CLIA waved test Microscopic Analysis
Chemical Anlysis Using a plastic reagent strip, impregnated with chemicals.
Chemical Analysis Tests for hemoglobin, glucose, protein, keytones, WBC's, bilirubin, and PH can be performed
Chemical Analysis Reagent strips can have from 2-10 tests on them, depending on the need
Part 3 of Urinalysis Microscopic analysis
Microscopic Analysis Cellular material such as WBC's, RBC's and casts
Microscopic Analysis Bacteria
Microscopic Anlysis Trichomonas vaginalis (a parasite)
Microscopic Analysis Sperm
Microscopic Analysis Renal and epithelial cells
Microscopic Analysis Various crystals
Microscopic Analysis Yeast
Cast Protein
Urine Collection Random
Urine Collection First Morning
Urine Collection 24 hour
Urine Collection Mid-stream clean catch
Urine Transportation Should be transportated to lab within 1 hour of collection
Mid-stream clean catch Used for Urine C&S
Urine C&S Goes to microbiology
24 hour urine collection Measures kidney function
First Morning Most concentrated, good for things like pregnancy tests looking for HCG hormone
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Done with a canula from a lumbar puncture
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Meningitis
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Encephalitis
CSF - Cereboralspinal Fluid Total protein
CSF - Cereboralspinal Fluid Glucose
CSF - Cereboralspinal Fluid Cell count
CSF - Cereboralspina Fluid Culture for microbial organisms
CSF - Cereboralspinal Fluid Cryptoccus neoformans (a yeast) and cryptoccan antigens
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Shoul be at room temperature
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Collected in 3 sterile tubes
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Tube 1 goes to chemistry or serology
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid Tube 2 goes to Microbology
CSF - Cereboralspinal Fluid Tube goes to Cytology and/or microbology
Fecal Specimens Parasites, also called O&P or ova and parasites
Fecal Specimens Enteric disorders such as salmonella, shigella, and campylobacter pylori
Fecal Specimens Viral disease
Fecal Specimens Colo-rectal cancer (occult blood)
Fecal Specimens Should be transported immediately
Fecal Specimens Specimens should be a room temperature
Seminal Fluid Fertility Analysis
Seminal Fluid Post vacectomy check done at 10 & 14 weeks
Seminal Fluid Should be transported to lab within 30 minutes
Pericardial Fluid Cancers
Synovial Fluid Crystals
Pleural Fluid Cancers
Throat Cultures Must stay moist in transport
Throat Cultures Usually for strep
Throat Cultures Microbiology
Wound Cultures Microbiology
Urine Cultures Microbiology
Fecal Cultures Microbiology
Ear or Eye Cultures Microbiology
Skin Scrapings Microbiology
Normal fresh urine 5.0 to 8.0 pH
Protein or Albumin (proteinuria) Can indicate renal disease or urinary tract infection (also called UT)
Glucose (glycosuri or glucosuria) Presence means the blood levels exceeds the renal threshold and is "spilling" into the urine
Keytone (keytonuria) Indicates that the body is metabolizing fats incompletely and is under severe stress (starvation, fasting, diabetes)
Bilirubin Byproductof hemoglobin breakdown in the liver, presence in the urine indicates liver damage, bile duct obstruction, hemolytic diseace of the newborn, alergic reactions (anaphylatic shock), or hepatitis
Blood (hematria) Can be caused by infection, trauma to the kidneys or other urinary organs, kidney stones causing damage
Urobilinogen This is a degradation podruct of bilirubin. It is elevated in cases of hepatic disease of hemolytic disease
Nitrates Indicates the presence of a "nitrate producing" bacteria - usually Eschericia coli
Leukocyte Esterase (White Blood Cells) Bacterial Infection (UTI)
Created by: Adwa