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Mitosis - Janssen

Mrs. Janssen's Biology Chapter 9

What is the key factor that limits the size of a cell? Ratio of surface area to volume
What is the formula for calculating surface area? l x w x # of sides
What is the formula for calculating volume? l x w x h
Inside the cell, what are two ways substances move? diffusion & motor proteins
When a cell reaches its size limit, what two things can it do? Stop growing or divide
What is the cell cycle? A cell's process of growing & dividing
What is interphase? A stage of the cell cycle in which the cell grows, metabolizes, & replicates DNA
What is mitosis? A stage of the cell cycle in which the nucleus & nuclear material divide
What is cytokinesis? A stage of the cell cycle in which the cytoplasm divides and 2 new cells are formed
What is the cell doing during the G1 stage of interphase? Growing & metabolizing
What is the cell doing during the S stage of interphase? Copying DNA
What is the cell doing during the G2 stage of interphase? Preparing for mitosis
What are chromosomes? X-shaped structures that contain genetic material (DNA)
What is chromatin? Relaxed form of DNA
What happens during prophase? Chromatin condenses, nuclear membrane disappears, spindle forms
What happens during metaphase? Chromosomes line up along equator
What happens during anaphase? Chromosomes split and move toward poles
What happens during telophase? Chromosomes reach poles & decondense, nuclear envelopes form
What happens during cytokinesis? Cytoplasm divides, 2 new separate cells formed
What are sister chromatids? Structures that contain identical copies of DNA
What are centromeres? Structure at center of chromosome where sister chromatids are attached
What is cancer? Uncontrolled growth and reproduction of cells
What is a carcinogen? An agent that causes cancer
What is apoptosis? Programmed cell death
What are stem cells? Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells?
What are the two types of stem cells? Embryonic & adult
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle? Interphase
What is the longest phase of mitosis? Prophase
What is the shortest phase of mitosis? Metaphase
What happens to DNA during interphase? Replicates
What anchors the spindle during mitosis? Centrioles
How many daughter cells are produced from mitosis? 2
How many stages are there in mitosis? 4
What structure forms across the center of a plant cell near the end of telophase? Cell plate
Created by: jjanssen33