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Down Syndrome


Prevalence of DS 1 in 700 to 1000 live births, males and females, and all ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. It is generally not hereditary
Influence of mother's age at birth on DS Incidence of DS increases with maternal age, but 80 % of babies with DS are born to women under 35 because younger women have more children. (At 45 there is a 1 in 30 chance)
Cause of DS Trisomy 21--3 chromosomes instead of 2 in the 21st chromosome 'pair' (something goes wrong in cell division)
Physical features of DS small head w/ flat face, small ears, small mouth w/ protruding tongue, broad neck, epicanthal folds, shortened fingers & toes, horizontal crease in palm, enlarged gap between big and 2nd toes, short stature, shortened limbs, hypotonia
Hypotonia decreased muscle tone
Medical concerns of DS Congenital heart defects; hearing loss; opthalmic (eyes), endocrine (hormones), and dental conditions; obesity (thyroids); skin conditions; shortened life span
Strength of DS visual-spatial skills
Weaknesses of DS verbal and auditory skills
State of expressive language with DS lags behind comprehension and mental age
Difficulties in form with DS difficulties with negatives, wh-questions, irregular past (I went to the store), embedded sentences (I see that John is coming), and passives (Mary was chased by Sam)
Difficulties in content with DS reduced vocab
Difficulties in phonology with DS impaired articulation and dysfluencies present
Difficulties in use with DS pragmatics less impaired than other areas of language
Developmental trajectories of DS dev. slows as get olde; difficulty attaining Brown's stage III (2-3 word combos) and with grammatical morphemes; may continue dev. vocab, early lang., and social competence until early 20's
High risk of _______ in people with DS Alzheimer's Disease--after age 30 brains show characteristics of AD neuropathology
Intervention of DS includes Feeding and swallowing; use of total communication; address literacy issues (phonetic decoding vs sight vocab, phonemic awareness)
Total communication the theory or practice of incorporating all means of communication, including speech, speechreading, auditory training, sign language, and writing during speech therapy
Created by: 100000299709410