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allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
codominance a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
dihybrid cross a cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
homozygous describes an individual that has identical alleles for a gene on both homologous chromosomes
heterozygous describes an individual that has two different alleles of a gene
incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
law of independent assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
law of segregation Mendel's first law, stating that (1) organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes spearate during gamete formation (meiosis)
monohybrid cross a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
Punnett Square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
test cross the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
trait one of two or more possible forms of a characteristic; a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism
purebred type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
gene the most basic physical unit of heredity; a segment of DNA that codes for a functional unit of RNA and/or a protein
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species
recessive in genetics describes an allele that is expressed only when no dominant allele is present in an individual
crossing over exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
genetic linkage tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together.
carrier in biology, an individual who has one copy of a recessive autosomal allele that causes disease in the homozygous condition
sex-linked gene gene that is located on a sex chromosome
X chromosome inactiviation process that occurs in female mammals in which one of the X chromosomes is randomly turned off in each cell
polygenic trait a trait that is produced by two or more genes
linkage map diagram that shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome
somatic cell cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
gamete a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
fertilization the union of a male and female gamete to from a zygote
diploid a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
haploid describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)
gametogenesis process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
sperm the male gamete (sex cell)
egg the female gamete (sex cell)
Created by: lpgullett