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Unit 5 Molecular Gen

RNA

QuestionAnswer
messenger RNA RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
transcription process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA polymerase enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
codon three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
mutation change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation gene mutation involving changes in one or few nucleotides
frameshift mutation mutation that shifts the “reading” frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
mutagen agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutations in organisms
cell differentiation process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function
restriction enzyme enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
gel electrophoresis method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current to a gel
PCR method for increasing the quantity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes
primer short segment of DNA that initiates replication by DNA polymerase
DNA fingerprint unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
clone genetically identical copy of a single gene or entire organism
genetic engineering process of changing an organism’s DNA to give the organism new traits
recombinant DNA genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species
plasmid circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome
transgenic organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
genomic study and comparison of genomes with a single species or among different species
gene sequencing process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
Created by: Batterbee