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ME Nutrition Test 1

Babies are... Generally willing to try new things
Preschoolers may go through? neophobia
School age children... accept a wider array of food
teenagers are... strongly influenced by their peers
Define umami Japanese term for meaty or savory taste produced by glutamate (an amino acid found in monosodium glutamate, MSG))
define neophobia a dislike for anything new or unfamiliar.
Two most important sensory influences on food choices? taste and texture
Cognitive influences on food choices? habits, comfort/discomfort foods, advertising and promotion, food and diet trends, social factors, nutrition and health benefits.
why is gluten free product production on the rise in the U.S.? Due to diagnosis of celiac disease, rising 15 – 25%.
Environmental influences on food choices? economic (cost), lifestyle, availability, cultural influences, religion.
define obesogenic environment promotes overconsumption of calories while discouraging physical activity.
what is the strongest cultural influence on food preference? tradition
define Food desert areas that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, and other healthy foods.
food restrictions in judaism? kosher, from clean animals that chew their cud and have split hooves. Fish must have fins and scales. Pork, crustaceans, shellfish, birds of prey are not allowed.
more restrictions in judaism? Orthadox laws prohibit eating meat and milk at same meal or preparing/serving with same dishes or utensils
Islamic restrictions? Halal is acceptable. Prohibits pork, flesh of clawed animals, alcohol, intoxicating drugs.
buddhism restrictions? prohibits intoxicating beverages.
mormon restrictions? Disapproves of coffee, tea, alcohol
hinduism restrictions? are vegetarians, don’t eat eggs.
Jain restrictions? forbids eating meat, animal products (milk, eggs, ect.), root vegetables (potatoes, carrots, garlic).
define macronutrients large quantities needed by the body (carbs, fats, proteins)
define micronutrients small quantities needed by the body (vitamins, minerals)
organic nutrients... contain carbon (carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins)
inorganic nutrients... contain no carbon (minerals, water)
carbohydrates... made of starches and sugars, is an energy source. Comes from grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, and dairy products.
lipids are made of triglycerides (fats, oils), cholesterol, and phospholipids. Is a feul/energy source. And... Provides structure for body cells, carry fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K), provide starting material (cholesterol) for making hormones. Comes from fats and oils cooked with, fats in meat and dairy products, plant sources: coconuts, olives, and avocado.
Protein... made of amino acids. Builds and maintains body structures, regulates body processes, provides energy source. Comes from meats, dairy, grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
what vitamins are fat soluble? A, D, E, and K. Regulate body processes (energy production, blood clotting, calcium balance).
what vitamins are water soluble? C and 8 B vitamins Regulate body processes (energy production, blood clotting, calcium balance).
define Macrominerals body needs in relatively large quantities.
define Microminerals – body needs in very small amounts.
function of macro and microminerals? structural roles (bones and teeth), regulatory roles (fluid balance and regulation of muscle contraction).
what is the most important nutrient? water. Make up 60% of the body. Regulates temperature, lubrication of joints, transportation of nutrients and wastes.
Carbohydrates yield? 4 kcal/gram
Proteins yield? 4 kcal/gram
Lipids yield? 9 kcal/gram
Alcohol yield? 7 kcal/gram
formula: Total number of calories in a food source __grams carbs x 4 kcal/g = __ kcal __grams protein x 4 kcal/g = __ kcal __grams lipids x 9 kcal/g = __kcal
formula: Percentage of calories each contributes to total kcal of the food source __kcal from carbs / ___total kcal x 100 = ___% __kcal from protein “ “ “ __kcal from lipids “ “ “
formula: max number of grams a day that could be consumed when maintaining weight _____kcal x .35 = ___kcal from lipids/day ____from lipids/day / __kcal/g = __grams of fat
what health risks increase with obesity? coronary heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis.
how much exercise a day has a positive impact on weight management efforts? 60 minutes
how much exercise a day of moderate activity helps reduce chronic disease risks 30 minutes .
steps of scientific method? observation, hypothesis, experimentation, publication, experimentation, theory.
Epidemiological studies ? compares disease rates among population groups and attempts to identify related conditions or behaviors such as diet and smoking habits.
animal studies? provide preliminary data that leads to human studies.
cell culture studies? grow and use cells to study effects of nutrients or other components on metabolic processes in the cell.
human studies? used to test hypotheses in humans.
two types of human studies? case control study and clinical trial
case control study? one group with a condition is compared to a similar group of people without the condition.
clinical trial is also called? also called intervention study.
clinical trial? Controlled study with intervention (a nutrient supplement, controlled diet, exercise program) used to determine impact on certain health parameters. Groups randomly chosen. Experimental and control group.
Double-blind study ? – neither subjects nor researchers collecting data know subjects’ group assignments.
Nutrigenomics? – explores the effect of specific nutrients and other chemical compounds on gene expression.
define placebo an imitation treatment/intervention
define adequacy choosing meals and snacks that are high in vitamins and minerals but low to moderate in energy (calorie) content.
define balance a diet is balanced if the amount of energy (calories) consumed equals the amount of energy expended in daily activites and exercise, and when foods consumed provide adequate nutrients.
define calorie control amount of calories you need to maintain or achieve a healthy weight, then choose an adequate diet that balances the calories you eat with the calories your body uses.
define nutrient density nutrient dense foods provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals in proportion to relatively few calories.
define moderation too much or too little of anything or any nutrient can be harmful to an individual’s health.
define variety including lots of different foods in the diet, no just different food groups, but also different foods from each food group.
The ultimate goal of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 is... to improve health of our nation’s current and future generations by facilitating and promoting healthy eating and physical activity choices so the behaviors become a way of life for all individuals
Two overarching concepts of DGA 2010: maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight. Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages.
key recommendations of DGA 2010:prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors. Control total calorie intake to manage body weight. Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. Maintain appropriate calorie balance during each stage of life.
7 messages conveyed by the MyPlate icon: enjoy food but eat less, avoid oversized portions, make half your plate a variety of fruits and vegetable (dark green, red or orange), drink water instead of sugary drinks, eat/drink fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, compare sodium in foods, make half your grains whole grains.
original purpose of exchange lists was to help people with diabetes plan diets that would supply constant levels of energy and carbohydrates.
USDA means? United States Department of Agriculture
DASH means? Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
RNI means? Recommended Nutrient Intake (Canada)
DRI means? Dietary Reference Intakes
EAR means? Estimated Average Requirement
RDA means? Recommended Dietary Allowance (United States)
AI means? Adequate Intake
UL means? Tolerable Upper Intake Level
EER means? Estimated Energy Requirement
FDA means? Food and Drug Administration
EAR reflects? the amount of nutrition that would meet the needs of 50% of individuals in a specific life stage age and gender group.
RDA is used to? tell people how much of each nutrient should be consumed within their diet. AI can be used when not enough data are available to set an EAR level.
UL represents ? the maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed.
Recommended percentage balance of energy sources in a healthy diet according to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR): Fat 20-35% Carbohydrates 45-65% Protein 10-35% Fatty Acids 5-10% a-Linolenic Acid .6-1.2%
Mandatory components of a food label: - a statement of identity which displays an appropriately descriptive term - the net contents of the food inside package - name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor to provide means for consumers to contact someone in case they have questions about the product. - list of all ingredients by common name and in descending order by weight. - nutrition information
Components of a nutrition facts panel: - labels must display serving size, number of servings, calories per serving, calories from fat, and other pertinent information related to the nutrient content within the product. - labels must display percentages daily values for vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron, which are the only micronutrients required on label. - if manufacturer claims food is enriched or fortified the manufacturer must include specific nutrition information for these nutrients.
Daily Values on a food label shows if ? the food contributed a lot or a little to the daily recommended allowance.
define Enriched food products that have added vitamins and minerals that were lost during processing.
define fortified – addition of vitamins or minerals that weren’t originally present in the food.
Nutrient content claims – regulations that must be followed for manufacturers to make certain claims regarding a product (ex. low-fat), claims cannot be misleading.
Health claims – a statement that links one or more dietary components to reducing the risk of disease.
Structure/Function claims – describe potential effects of food, food components, or dietary supplements on body structures or functions such as bone health, muscle strength, and digestion, and must be related to nutritive value.
functional foods - food or food component that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition.
phytochemicals (plant chemicals) are not essential for life, include pigments (in red grapes and red wine) and antioxidants compounds. Neutralize free radicals.
lycopene - decreased risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease with use of lycopene. Foods highest in lycopene include tomatoes, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava.
foods and herbs with the highest anti-cancer activity include garlic, soybean, cabbage, ginger, licorice, celery, carrots, and parsley
Phytochemicals work by blocking the effect of estrogen on cell growth possibly inhibiting the development of breast, ovarian, or prostrate tumors. Called phytoestrogens. Carotenoids (plant pigments) found in leafy greens, corn, egg yolk. Low risk of age related macular degeneration. Phytochemicals in whole grains aid in prevention of cancer and heart disease.
free radicals - (active oxidants). Are continually produced in cells and over time can result in damage to DNA and other cell structures. Damage can promote cancer and cell aging.
direct additives - added to food for a specific reason (different sweetener)
indirect additives - substances that unintentionally become part of the food in trace amounts (chemicals from food packaging)
5 reasons for using direct additives: maintaining product consistency, improving/maintaining nutritional value, keeping food appetizing & wholesome, providing leavening or controlling acidity/alkalinity, enhancing flavor or giving desired color.
3 most common direct additives are sugar, salt, and corn syrup
FDA’s four regulatory categories: food additives, color additives, GRAS substances, prior sanctioned substances.
GRAS – Generally Recognized as Safe
the Delaney Clause states that food and color additives can’t be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals
nutrition content claim – statement that describes the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in the product
Health claim – statement that associates food or substance in a food with a disease or health related condition. FDA authorizes health claims.
Structure/function claim – statement that promotes a substance’s effect on the body structure or function. Must be based on food’s nutritive value.
Moderate nutrient supplementation – needed by people with elevated nutrient needs, people who don’t always eat well enough. . Includes women of child bearing age, pregnant, breast feeding, heavy menstrual bleeding, children, infants, people with severe food restrictions, strict diets, older adults.
Megadose of a nutrient – contain 10 or more times the recommended amount of nutrient
Require a megadose – medications that deplete stores or blocks functions of vitamins or minerals, people with malabsorption syndrome, people with malabsorption of vitamin b12 causing pernicious anemia.
Drawbacks of megadoses: can create deficiencies of other nutrients, interfere with absorption of nutrients, blood clotting, nerve damage, interfere with medications and treatments.
St.John's wort interacts with oral contraceptives, blood thinners, antidepressants, HIV/AIDS drugs.
Feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo biloba, guarana, pau d’ Arco interfere with warfarin and cumadin. Increases anticoagulant affect.
Hawthorn and horse chestnut interfere with digoxin and diuretics. Affects cardiac function and blood pressure.
Aloe, senna, cascara, and licorice interfere with digoxin and diuretics. Causes electrolyte imbalance, licorice increases BP.
Dietary supplement categories include protein powders, amino acids, carotenoids, bioflavonoids, digestive aids, fatty acid formulas, probiotics, garlic products, fibers, in addition to vitamins and minerals.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is responsible for ensuring advertisements and commercials are truthful and not misleading.
FDA is responsible for labeling and content of dietary supplements.
a good indicator of quality of a dietary supplement is a USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) verification mark.
-Complementary – utilized practices that are in addition to conventional ones.
-Alternative – utilizes practices that replace conventional ones.
Integrative – -combines both conventional and CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) treatments.
4 sensory influences that combine and produce perception of flavor: taste, texture, temperature, odor.
Gastrointestinal tract also called alimentary canal.
Peristalsis – waves of muscular contractions.
Segmentation – series of muscular contractions.
Hydrolysis – breaking apart by water.
GI enzymes are made of protein compounds, they catalyze chemical reactions but they aren’t altered in the process. (ex. amylase, lipase, sucrase)
Passive diffusion – movement of molecules through the cell membrane without expending energy.
Facilitated diffusion – special protein channels help substances cross cell membranes.
Active transport – help substances cross cell membranes.
Liver produces and secretes bile.
Gallbladder stores bile.
Bile ... reduces large globs of fat into smaller globs. Bile is reabsorbed and returned to the liver through enterohepatic circulation.
Dietary fat .... triggers gallbladder to release bile, is released into upper part of small intestine.
The pancreas releases the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood glucose levels.
Salivary amylase breaks down starch. . Lingual lipase starts fat digestion
Bolus – moistened lump of food, soft and easy to swallow.
Chyme - gastric juices and partly digested food, passes from stomach to small intestine.
most of water absorption occurs in the jejunum.
primary function of the large intestine is to move waste.
Fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed into the lymphatic system
2 primary organs for excretion are the lungs and kidneys. And passes out of GI tract.
the largest barrier against infectious agents is The gastrointestinal tract
Frying food produces acrolein, which decrease the flow of digestive secretions
when Eating on an empty stomach food is absorbed faster, has more contact with gastric secretions.
Bacteria causes gastritis and peptic ulcers. Can be prevented by secreting hydrochloric acid.
bacteria can cause foodborne illness because they resist the germicidal effect of HCL.
Constipation – caused by low fiber and water, high in fats. Correct by adding fiber and water, regular exercise.
Diarrhea – caused by stress, intestinal irritation, side effects medication, intolerance of gluten/fat/lactose, contaminated food. Correct with broth, tea, toast (low-fiber food), avoidance of lactose, fructose, caffeine, sugar alcohols.
Diverticulosis – caused by low fiber diet. Add fiber.
Gastroesophageal reflux – esophageal sphincter weak. Avoid chocolate, peppermint, fatty foods, coffee, alcohol. Decrease portions and fat, eat 2-3 hrs before bed.
Colorectal cancer – diet high in fat and meat. Correct with fruit, vegetables, folate, calcium and exercise.
Irritable bowel syndrome – beans, chocolate, milk, alcohol aggravate symptoms.
Flatulence – carbs, starches, soluble fibers cause. Fats and proteins cause little.
what causes ulcers Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs . Bacteria causes the most,
what weakens the esophageal sphincter and increases gastroesphageal reflux. Cigarette smoking
Peptic ulcer – burning pain in upper abdomen, is a sore that forms in the duodenum.
Functional dyspepsia – chronic pain in upper abdomen with no known physical cause.
Created by: mnerion