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Cell Processes

Mr. K's Cell Processes Unit Vocabulary

protein a large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
enzyme a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the bodies of living things
carbohydrates energy-rich organic compounds, such as sugars and starches, that are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They provide the raw materials to make parts of cells.
nucleic acid a very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
RNA ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
selectively permeable a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area in which they are highly concentrated to an area in which they are less concentrated
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
active transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
photosynthesis the process by which plants and some other organisms capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water
pigment a colored chemical compound that absorbs light
chlorophyll a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
chloroplast a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
stomata the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
respiration the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
mitochondria rod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's functions
fermentation the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen
cell cycle the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
interphase the stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs, the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide
replication the process by which a cell makes of copy of the DNA in its nucleus
mitosis the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
chromosome a rod-shaped cellular structure made of condensed chromatin
chromatid one of the identical rods of a chromosome that has been replicated
cytokinesis the final stage of the cell cycle in which the cell's cytoplasm divides
Created by: skrebbeks