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Anatomy and Physiol

bio 115 terms

QuestionsAnswer
Organic compounds - always contain both carbon and hydrogen - usually also contain oxygen - carbon molecules contain the "backbone" of organic compounds
Inorganic compounds - may contain either carbon or hydrogen in same molecule, but NOT both (bicarbonates are exception)
Water composes 2/3 of body weight - has ph of 7 = neutral - is excellent solvent and dissolves many substances (solutes) espec, ionic compounds - serves as lubricant
ICF - Intracellular Fluid water within cells about 65% of total body water
ECF - Extracellular fluid all water not in cells - about 35% of total body water
Tissue fluid Interstitial fluid water in tiny spaces between cells
plasma fluid portion of blood
lymph fluid in lymphatic vessels
specialized fluids water in more limited locations, such as serous fluid(fluid secreted by membranes lining the ventral body cavity)
serous fluid fluid secreted by membranes lining the ventral body cavity
acid -solutions with ph less than 7; -increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentrationof a solution by dissociating to release (H+) HCL -> H+ + Cl-
base -soltuions with ph greater than 7 -decreases concentration of H= in a solution by combining with the H+
base , p2 Some bases combine directly with H+ NaOH -> Na+ + OH- Other bases (eg. sodium hydroxide - NaOH, dissociate to release hydroxide ions (OH-) which combines with H+ to form water H+ + OH-
symbol ph measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
ph : acid -base balance relative concentration of hydrogen H+ and hydroxide OH- in a solution
ph scale 0 - 14
buffer chemical or comb of chemicals that either picks up excess H+ or releases H+ to keep the ph of a solution rather constant - important in maintaining normal ph of body fluids
normal ph of blood 7.35-7.45
acidosis ph is less than 7.35 -pt feels tired and disoriented extremes may be fatal
alkalosis ph is greater than 7.45 - pt feels agitated, dizzy, extremes may be fatal
inorganic salts most import ones in body: sodium, potassium, calcium -prov. ions essential for normal body funct: blood clotting, muscle and nerve funct, ph water balance
inorganic salts (def) ionic compounds that dissociate in an aqueous solution, but they do not prod H+ and OH- (hydrogen and hydroxide ions)
Majory Organic compounds of body carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (also adenosisne triphosphate- vital role in transfer of energy w/i cells)
carbohydrates formed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen -building units - monosaccharides - simple sugars eg. glucose, starch, glycogen
glucose primary energy source for cells
glycogen storage form of carbohydrates in body, some excess glucose in blood converted into glycogen and stored in liver
hydrogenation process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats, also changes boding patter of some fatty acids to form trans fats----> inc risk coron artery dis
saturated fats animal fats
unsaturated fats plant fat
proteins large, complex molecules, compsed of smaller molecules called amino acids
amino acids 20 kinds, each composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen - chain of 50 - thousands of amino acids forms a protein amine (-NH2) and acid (-COOH)
peptide bonds join amino acids
enzyme catlyzes chemical reactions; w/o enzymes body's chemical reactions would occur too slow to maintain life
nucleic acids 2 types in cells: DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid RNA - ribonucleid acid
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid - composes hereditary portion of chromosomes in cell nucleus, contains the genetic code
RNA Ribonucleic acid - carries the coded instructions from DNA to cellular machinary involved in protein synthesis
nucleotide - make up DNA and RNA - each consits of 3 parts: 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, organic base
ATP adenosine triphosphate energy in these bonds is released to power chem rxn w/i a cell ATP prov. immed energy to keep cellular processes operating the only molecule that performs this role
atom smallest unit of an element
chemical element subst. cannot be broken down into simpler subst. by chemical means
decomposistion reaction breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules
isotope an atom of an element having same number of protons and electons but a different number of neutrons than most atoms of the element
molecule smallest unit of a compound; composed of 2 or more atoms chemically combined
synthesis reaction formation of a molecule by combining atoms or simpler molecules
matter anything that has weight and occupies space
atomic number number of protons and electrons in each atom
atomic weight sum of number of protons and neutrons in each atom
radioisotopes have unstab le nucleus, emit high energy radiation as it breaks down to form more stable nucleus; some used in dx and tx of cancer
valence shell outermost shell of electrons in chemical bond
chemical bond join atoms together to forma molecule
ionic bond force of attraction that holds ions together - alwyas are formed between ions of opposite electrical charges
electrolytes substance that ionizes (dissociates) when dissolves in water -called electrolyte because when dissolved they can conduct an electrical current
covalent bond atoms that form molecules by sharing electrons are joined by covalent bonds;
hydrogen bond (def) weak attractive force between a slightly os hydrogen atom and a slightly neg oxygen or nitrogen atom at a different site w/i the same molecule or ina different molecule
hydrogen bond (contd) does not form molecules - occurs within or between some molecules formed by covalent bonding because of the unequal distrib of electrons w/i the molecules
3 types chemical reactions synthesis reaction decomposition reaction exchange reaction
synthesis reaction form new chemical bonds and new products, and energy is required for the rxn to occur A + B -> AB
decomposition reaction reverse of synthesis; chemical bonds of a complex molecule are broken to form 2 or more simpler molecules, releasing energy in the process AB -> A + B
exchange reaction when 2 different reactants exchange components, resulting in the breadkown of the reactands and formation of 2 new products, - involve both decompositon of reactants and synthesis of new products AB + CD -> AD + CB
visceral fluid around organ
parietal membranes line cavities, a serous membrane
visceral membranes surround organs, a serous membrane
serous membrane secrete serous fluid, reduces friction
pericardium membrane around the heard
pleura membrane around the lungs
peritoneum membrane around the abdomen
5 levels of organization in human body chemical, cellular,tissue, organ, organ system, organisms
chemical level of organization simplest level, consists of atoms and molecules
cellular level cells are the basic structural and functional unit, contain organelles
tissue level group of similar cells that perform similar funct, several diff types
organ level different tissues together working to perform one or more special functcions
organ system all of the organs necessary for system to work
organisms total of all organ systems
chemical level, what contains atom -> molecule->macromolecule-> organelle->
organelle microscopic subunit of a cell, like a tiny organ, carries out specific funct w/i a cell
anterior toward front
posterior toward ack
superior toward head
inferior away from head
superficial toward outside of body or periphery of body
deep within, internal
central near center of body or organ
peripheral away from center of body or organ, toward the body surface
proximal part of extremity nearest point of attachment to body, this term refers only to limbs
distal part of extremity farthest from point of attachment, this term refers only to limbs
external superficial, toward or on body surface
internal deep, away from body surface
parietal pertaining to outer boundary of body cavities
visceral pertainaing to internal organs
transverse plane divides body --superior(top) and inferior (bottom), the only horiz plan
sagittal divides body into right and left
medial/midsagittal passes thru midline of body, divides into equal right and left halves
frontal (coronal) divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)
dorsal cavity includes cranial cavity with brain, and vertebral canal; has 2 layers of protective membranes - meninges
ventral cavity throacic cavity, diaphram, abdominopelvic cavity, serous membranes line the cavity and surfaces of the contained internal organs, secrete watery lubricating fluid
thoracic cavity w/i ventral cavity, contains lungs, heart (pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, mediastinum)
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal and pelvic cavities; abdominal contains stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys; pelvic cav contains urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, internal reproductive organs
mediastinum membrane separates right and left thoracic cavity
4 abdominal quadrants RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ --- right upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left upper quadrant;, left lower quadrant
9 abdomino pelvic regions (middle 3) epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric; right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, left lumbar, right iliac, left iliac
5 basic survival needs water, food, oxygen, body temperature, atmospheric pressure
homeostasis (def) maintenance of relatively stable internal environment by self-regulating physiological processes
homeostasis - relationship to body functions keeps body temp and composition of blood and interstial fluid w/i rather narrow limits, is maintained and most physical systems regualted by negative feedback system
negative feedback 3 components: sensor- detects deviation from the norm and informs the control center, control center activates an effector, effector returns the internal environment to the norm
anatomy study of the structure and organization of the body and the study of the relationships of body parts to one another; body parts
physiology study of the function of the body and its parts
parietal pleurae line the walls of the left and right portions of the thoracic cavity
visceral pleurae line the outer surfaces of the lungs
pericardium membrane surrounding the heart; visceral pericardium lines the surface of the heart, parietal pericardium - thicker double layered membrane forms a sac around the heart
parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, but not the pelvic cavity
visceral peritoneum lines the surface of the abdominal organs
integumentary system skin, hair, nails, assoc glands; funct- protection, body temperature, sensations
skeletal system bones and joints; function - support and movement
muscular system 3 kinds: 1. smooth- not under our control, in gut, pupils of eye, 2. cardiac - only in heart, 3. skeletal - we have control over; function of muscular sys: movement, posture, temperature
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves: function- communication, integration, control
endocrine system ductless glands (produce hormones to communic w/body, pituitary gland - under brain, controls all other glands; funct of endocrine sys- regulation, longer term control
cardiovascular system heart, blood vessels, (is closed circuit- blood out around body and back); function - transportation, temperature regulation, immunity
lymphatic system nodes, vessels, thymus, spleen; a 1 way system, lymph vessel carries lymph, takes excess blood out of blood stream and put back in tissues; function - fluid transport, immunity
respiratory system nose, pharynx (throat) , larynx (contains vocal cords); trachea, bronchi, and lungs; function of resp sys- gas exchange (Oxygen and carbon dioxide) and acid-base balance
digestive system mouth pharynx, esophagus; stomach, intestines, rectum; liver, gallbladder, pancreas; funct: breakdown food, nutrient absorption, solid waste removal
digestive system - contd summary 1 continuous tube 27-30 ft long mouth to anus,(note: mouth and pharnyx also part of resp. sys)liver, gallbladd,pancreas are accessory
urinary system kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; function - nitrogenous waste removal, acid-base balance, water balance
reproductive system female -ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina; male- testes, ducts, prostate, penis, scrotum; function: produce hormones, produce babies
cavity membranes each cavity has double layer membrane, like gel pad lining - front and back; parietal layer - outside and visceral layer on top of organ
thymus - significance to organ systems part of immune sys, and part of endocrine sys, an endocrine gland located in the mediastinum above the heart
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus (which is also same as the number of electrons)
atomic weight number of protons plus neutrons; electrons have no weight
when is atom most stable atom most stable when has either has outermost shell complely filled or has no electrons in it at all
compound (molecule) Particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine Na-Cl = NaCl
energy shells orbitals where electrons are found/move within/around an atom; lower shell(closest to nucleus) filled first
energy shells rules for filling order for atoms with atomic numbers of 18 or less, the following rules apply: the first shell can hold up to 2 electrons the second shell can hold up to 8 electrons the third shell can hold up to 8 electrons
chemical bond formed when electrons are either: Donated / Received or Shared; 2 types - covalent and ionic
covalent bond chemical bond formed when electrons are shared; when breaks do not form ions
ionic bond chemical bond formed when electrons are donated or received; an attraction between positive and negative ions; when breaks form ions, charged particles
hydrogen bond Weak attractive force between a positively charged hydrogen atom and a negatively charged atom in the same or different molecule; H becomes slightly positive, while the other atom becomes slightly negative
ion Atom that has gained (received) or lost (donated) an electron(s); electrically charged positive (+) or negative (-); Atoms form ions to become stable
structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules
inorganic molecules Generally do not contain both C and H Usually smaller than organic molecules ; Examples: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts
organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen; 4 categories: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
most common inorganic molecules water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic salts; water - 2/3 weight of human body, oxygen used by organelles to release energy-ATP; CO2- waste prod released during metabolic rxns; inorganic salts - abundant in body fluids+involved in many metab proc
electrolytes Substances that release ions in water; Example: Table Salt → Sodium and Chlorine ions; NaCl → Na+ + Cl -
acids Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water; Example: Stomach acid (HCl) HCl → H + + Cl –
bases Substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions; Example: Intestinal secretions, Bleach............. NaOH → Na+ + OH
salts Electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base; HCl + NaOH → H2O + NaCl
ph Measure of the H+ concentration in a solution
ph scale Measurement of acidity (H+ concentration) of a solution;Ranges from 0 (highly acidic) to 14 (highly alkaline/basic)
acidic pH less than 7; greater concentration of H+
alkaline (base) pH greater than 7; greater concentration of OH-
neutral ph ph 7; equal concentrations of H+ and OH- (water is neutral)
buffers Chemical(s) that can either pick up or release H+ to keep a solution’s pH constant; Maintain normal pH of body fluids; Needed because slight pH changes can be harmful to body cells
nucleic acids constitute the genetic material of the cell Play an essential role in protein synthesis 2 types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – double stranded; RNA (ribonucleic acid) – single strand; Building blocks of nucleic acids = nucleotides
ATP the energy currency of the cell; only molecule to provide immediate energy to power cellular processes; Temporarily stores energy extracted from nutrients by cells;
ATP energy process Energy produced by breaking high energy phosphate bonds and stored by forming high energy phosphate bonds
carbohydrates (aka-saccharides)Provide energy to cells; Supply materials to build cell structures;Contain C, H, and O
lipids 3 types:Fats (triglycerides), Phospholipids, steroids and sterols
proteins funct:structural materials, receptors, antibodies, enzymes,amino acids
anticodon group of 3 nucleotides of a transfer RNA molecule that pairs with a codon of a messenger RNA molecule
codon 3 nucleotides of messenger RNA that code for a specific amino acid and that are complementary to both the 3 nucleotides of DNA and an anticodon of transfer RNA
anion neg charged atom
cation pos charged atom
Components of the plasma membrane Phospholipids, Carbohydrates, Protiens
Plasma membrane selectively permeable - Allows only certain molecules to enter or exit the cell
What can pass through is determined by Molecular size Solubility Ionic charges Attachment to carrier molecules
Plasma membrane a phospholipid bilayer with attached or embedded proteins. Polar head and non-polar tails;
phospolipid head Polar, hydrophyillic, water soluble; the phosphate end,
phospholipid tail non-polar (no charge),hydrophobic; forms interior of plama membrane; allows lipid soluble substance to pass thru membrane but prevents water soluble substance from entering
function of cholesterol among phospholipids increase stability of plama membrane
plasma membrane funct re cellular fluids barrier between water-soluble substances in aqeueous(water) intracellular and extracellular fluids
selectively permeable membrane allows only certain molecules to enter/exit cell, determ by: size - small get thru easily; solubility- lipid sol yes, water no; ionic charges -non charged get thru easily; Charged can’t get thru easily, need to be moved across w carrier cells, often pumps
Components of the plasma membrane Phospholipids, Carbohydrates, Protiens; mostly phospholipids
cytoplasm Fluid or gel-like substance that fills the interior of the cell; 75% to 90% water plus organic and inorganic molecules; transparent, thicker than water; Supported by Intracellular membranes and Cytoskeleton; site of many chem rxn
organelles small membranous structures, each with a specific function
cytoplasmic organelles Nucleus w/ Nucleolus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Cilia, Cytoskeleton, Centrioles
Nuclear envelope Separates it from the cytoplasm; Has pores that aid in movement of materials
Chromosomes most important struct w/i nucleus;Made of 46 total chromosomes per nucleus; 23 pairs; DNA contains instructions that control cell function;
nuclear envelope separates nucleus from cytoplasm; double layered; contains many pores that aid in movement of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
nuclear pore aids movement of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleolus consists of RNA and protein; center of nucleus; site of ribosome production
nucleus largest organelle; contains chromosomes and nucleoli(nucleolus), surr by nuclear envelope
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) System of membranous channels and saccules
Rough ER studded with ribosomes on the membrane; synthesizes proteins.
Smooth ER no ribosomes on the membrane; synthesizes phospholipids, as well as various other functions.
Ribosomes tiny granuales of RNA and protein; found alone in cytoplasm or attached to ER(endoplasmic reticulum); Function in protein synthesis;
Golgi Apparatus Consists of a stack of saccules, along with vesicles. Receives protein and or lipid vesicles that bud from the ER; form lysosomes; sort and package substances in vesicles for export from cell or use w/i cell
Lysosomes Membranous sacs that contain powerful hydrolytic (chem bond by adding water) digestive enzymes; formed by Golgi; clean up cellular environment
how do lysosomes clean up cellular environment enzymes that digest: bacteria, cell parts that need replacement, worn out or damaged cells
cytoplasm Formed of several types of filamentous structures that give the cell its shape and organelles the ability to move about the cell.
mitochondria Double-membrane organelles involved in cellular respiration, release of energy from nutrients and Site of ATP production; "powerhouse of the cell"
vesicles
secretory vesicles transport substances to plasma membrane and release them outside cell
cytoskeleton Formed of several types of filamentous structures that give the cell its shape and organelles the ability to move about the cell. microtubules and microfilaments
microfilaments tiny rods of contractile protein that support cell and enable cell movement,
microtubules long, thin protein tubules prov support for cell and involved in movement
cilia Numerous, short hair-like projections containing microtubules; Move substances along cell surface
flagella Long, whip-like projections containing microtubules; Enables movement of cells; Example: sperm
centrioles Rod shaped structure that organizes the microtubules; Most evident during cell division; 2 short cylinders, near nuleus, at right angles to each other; 9 triplets arraneged in circular pattern
Active transport Movement of substances through the plasma membrane requiring ATP as the cell assists in transport: Carrier proteins, Endocytosis Exocytosis
Passive transport movement of substances thru plasma membrane without cell assistance – diffusion, osmosis, filtration
diffusion method of passive transport; Net movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; Occurs in gases and liquids due to constant, random motion of molecules; Occurs in both living and non-living systems
Osmosis method of passive transport; Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane; Water moves from area of higher water concentration (lower solute concentration) to area of lower water concentration (higher solute concentration)
osmosis Water always diffuses from a hypotonic solution into a hypertonic solution (ie. Water always moves from area of higher water concentration to area of lower water concentration)
Hypotonic solution Has a lower concentration of solutes and higher concentration of water
Hypertonic solution Has a higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water
Isotonic solution Solutions have the same concentration of solutes and water
Solute a substance dissolved in a solvent
Filtration method of passive transport- Forces smaller molecules in a solution through a membrane due to greater hydrostatic pressure on one side; Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid against a wall or membrane
Hydrostatic pressure the pressure exerted by a fluid against a wall or membrane
active transport Requires the cell to use ATP (The energy currency of the cell0; Three basic mechanisms Carrier proteins, Endocytosis, Exocytosis
Active Transport - Carrier Proteins Embedded in the plasma membrane with the ability to bind a certain type of molecule or ion; Use energy to change shape; Move the molecule/ion from one side of the membrane to the other; From an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
Active Transport – Endocytosis and Exocytosis Used for materials too large for carrier proteins
Endocytosis engulfment of particles and liquid droplets Phagocytosis – small particles; Pinocytosis – small droplets of fluid
Exocytosis substances are expelled from the cell
cell division Two types of division occur in the body-meiosis and mitosis
Meiosis Parent cell forms daughter cells with only half the number of chromosomes; Sex cells
Mitosis Parent cell forms daughter cells with identical chromosomes to the parent; Growth and Repair
mitotic cell division Produces new cells for growth and for replacement of worn or damaged cells; Involves three processes: Replication of chromosomes, Mitosis, Division of the cytoplasm
cell division - cell cycle The time between cell divisions; Mitosis is only 5-10% of the cell cycle; Interphase is the time when mitosis is not occurring (growth and DNA synthesis occur here)
Cell Division - Interphase growth and replication of chromosomes and centrioles; DNA strands “unzip” forming 2 strands of DNA; New nucleotides join existing strands thru complimentary base pairing; When completed, q new DNA molecule consists of “old” strand joined to “new” strand
Mitosis takes place in 4 phases prophase- Pro = before; Metaphase – Meet; Anaphase – Apart; Telophase - Two
Mitosis –Prophase Pro = before; Chromosomes condense and become rod-shaped; q chromosome consists of 2 chromatids joined at their centromeres; Nuclear envelope disappears;Centrioles migrate to opposite ends of the cell and form the mitotic spindle
Mitosis – Metaphase met-meet; Chromosomes line up at the equator of the spindle; Centromeres of each chromatid pair are attached to the spindle
Mitosis – Anaphase a-Apart; Separation of the centromeres separates the paired chromatids; Then the members of each pair migrate to opposite sides of the cell
Mitosis – Telophase t= two; Spindle fibers disappear and nuclear envelops reform, establishing two new nuclei Chromosomes uncoil; Cytokinesis, or division of the cytoplasm, occurs
Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm, occurs
cellular respiration proc that breaks down nutrients to release energy held in their chem bonds and transfers some of the energy into high-energy phosphate bonds of ATP; about 40% of energy in nutrient molecule is captured and rest list as heat energy;
nutrients in cellular respiration most common nutrient is Glucose; building units of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids may be used, glucose most common
cellular respiration processes anaerobic and aerobic;
anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen; occurs in the cytoplasm; yeilds 2 ATP;breaks down a 6-carbon glucose molecule into 2 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules to yield a net of 2 ATP molecules
syntesis of ATP requires energy, ADP (adenosine diphosphate), and low-energy phosphate group (-P)
aerobic respiration 2nd portion of cellular respiration; requires oxygen; occurs only w/i mitochonria; is essential for human life; yeilds 34 ATP; breaks down 2 pyruvic acid molecules prod by anaerobic resp into CO2 and water and yields a net of 34 ATP molecules
protein synthesis-2 processes transcription and translation
transcription part of 2 step proc of protein synthesis; occurs in the nucleus;sequence of bases in DNA determ the sequence of bases in messenger RNA due to complimentary base pairing; transfers encoded info of DNA into the sequence of bases in RNA
codon a triplet of bases in mRNA (messenger RNA)
mRNA -messenger RNA carries genetic info from DNA into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis; this info is carried by the sequence of bases in mRNA, which is complementary to the sequence of bases in the DNA template
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with protein compose ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis; robosomes contain the enzymes req for protein synthesis
transfer RNA (tRNA)
translation part of 2 stepproc of protein synthesis; takes place in the cytoplasm; encoded info in mRNA is used to prod a specific sequence of amino acids to form the protien;
protein synthesis - transcription and translation formula summarized DNA ------> mRNA ------> Protein
protein synthesis involves interaction of DNA, mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA
DNA-------> mRNA------> protein sequence of bases in RNA determines the sequence of codons in mRNA, which in turn determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein
Created by: MBuzzelli