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Microbiology 2

QuestionAnswer
prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea
bacteria examples include cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria
archaea exammples include halophiles and thermophiles
pathogens include bacteria and eukaryota
ukaryotes include basal protists, flagellates, fungi, rhodophytes, alveolates,chromists, plants and animals
prokaryotes have a...with... primitive nucleus...no nuclear membrane
archaea (which is a..) is similar to...and lives in...such as... domain...bacteria...harsh environments...hot springs, salt lakes, soils and marshlands
archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans
there are no known pathogens in archaea
bacteria (which is a...) do include... domain...pathogens
eukaryotes (which is a...) have a...with... domain...true nucleus...nuclear membrane
eukaryotes are things like...which can include... humans, spiders, flies, plants, molds, yeasts and parasites...pathogens
bacteria and archaea evolved...and are... 3-4 billion years ago...unicellular
eukaryote: protista evolved...and are... 1.5 bil years ago...unicellular
eukaryote: fungi evolved...and are... 1 bil years ago...multi or unicellular
eukaryote: animalia evolved...and are... 700 mil years ago...multicellular
eukaryote: plantae evolved...and are... 500 mil years ago...multicellular
ribosomes do...and are they present or not in pro/eu? protein synthesis...present in both
cytoskeleton creates the...and provides... shape in prokaryotes...support, cytoplasmic streaming and endocytosis in eukaryotes
cytoskeleton is present in some...and in all... prokaryotes...eukaryotes
centrioles appear to play a role in...and...and... mitosis...cytokinesis...flagella and cilia formation in animal cells
centrioles are...in prokaryotes and... absent in all....present in animal eukaryots
membranous organelles are absent in all prokaryotes
nucleus is the...of the cell and is...in eukaryotes control center...present in all
ER does...and is...in eukaryotes transportation and lipid synthesis...present in all
golgi bodies do...and are... eukaryotes exocytosis and secretion...present in some
lysosomes do two things...and are...eukaryotes breakdown of nutrients, self-destruction of damaged or aged cells...present in some
peroxisomes do...and are...eukaryotes neutralization of toxins...present in some
vacuoles do...and are...eukaryotes storage...present in some
vesicles do...and are... transport, digestion and storage...present in all eukaryotes
mitochondria do..and are... aerobic ATP production...present in most eukaryotes
chloroplasts do...and are present in... photosynthesis...eukaryotic plants, algae and some protozoa
prokaryotes have only one copy of DNA (haploid)
the most important organelle for differentiating between eukaryote and prokaryotes is the nucleus
all eukaryotes have a nucleus except for rbcs
eukaryotes have organelles for...but prokaryotes... specific functions...have no organelles
components of eukaryotic cells whicch would not be considered organelles include microtubules/filaments and chromosomes
microtubules and microfilaments make up the...and perform cytoskeleton structure...movement by forming pseudopoda
chromosomes are...and do... organized...packaging of DNA involving histone proteins
prokaryotic cells range from...and eukaryotic cells range from... .2-2micrometers...10-100
prokaryotic flagella consist of two protein building blocks
eukaryotic flagella are...and consist of.. complex...multiple microtubules
prokaryotic glycocalyx are...and... present...are a capsule or slime layer
eukaryotic glycocalx is..that lack... present in some cells...a cell wall
prokaryotic plasma membrane contains no..and generally lacks... carbohydrates...sterols
the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell has...present sterols and carbohydrates that serve as receptors
prokaryotic cytoplasm has no cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic steraming
eukaryotic cytoplasm has cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic streaming
ribosomes of prokaryotic cells are smaller in size (70s) compared to eukaryotic (80s)
prokaryotes go through...for cell division binary fission
eukaryotic cells go through...for cell division mitosis
prokaryotes have single circular chromosome that lacks histones
eukaryotes have multip[le linear chromosomes, with histone arrangement
prokaryotes and sexual reproduction no meiosis, transfer of DNA fragments only
eukaryotes and sexual reproduction involves meiosis
cilia are only in...and the motion is in... eukaryotes...one plane(beating
flagella are in...but they have... both pro and eu...different structures
flagella motion is...or... rotational in pro...undulation in eukaryotes
flagella are used for...and direction is determined by... locomotion...phototaxis or chemotaxis
phototaxis means moving toward light
chemotaxis means moving toward chemical attractant
eukaryotic flagella are internal, entirely surrounded by cytoplasmic membrane
eukaryotic flagella are only found on...and their action is.. one pole of cell...rhythmic undulation which pushes or pulls the cell
prokaryotic flagella are...and several... imbedded in cell envelope...configurations existt
prokaryotic flagella action is rotational, cells move by "run and tumble"
a run is when...and tumble is when.. flagella propel prokaryote in a CCW direction..it spins in a CW direction
prokaryotic flagella have 4 configurations monotrichous, lophotrichous (polar), amphitrichous (bipolar) and peritrichous
eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella function... differently in their mechanism of propulsion
eukaryotic flagella whip back and forth (undulate)
prokaryotic flagella...and involves the process of... rotate...chemotaxis
flagellin contaqin many copies of a single protein that make up the filament
flagellin also contain a...that is a.. basal body...protein
the prokaryotic flagellin penetrates through the...where it is anchored by the... cell wall and plasma membrane...basal boedy
just outside the cell is the...and then the... hook...filament (made of protein that is specific to that type of cell so you can stereotype them)
bacterial spirochetes have axial fibrils in a sheath called axial filaments
bacterial spirochetes are helical/spiral-shaped bacteria
bacterial spirochetes move by...which allows it to... corkscrewing..burrow into cells
eukaryotic flagella and cilia do not...and their action is ina... pierce the cell membrane...beating fashion (not rotary as in prokaryotes)
cilia are...present only on... short hair like structures...eukaryotes
cilia extend from cell and provide locomotion
functions of cilia include locomotion in unicellular organisms and prevention of lung damage in resp tract by pushing out microbes/debris
motile wbcs move by use of... pseudopoda
wbcs are motile but they..by means of the... crawl...microfilaments and microtubules forming the pseudopods
pseudopods help perform phagocytosis
the ribosomes are a key difference between pro and eukaryotes (think size)
70s vs 80s: s is the sedimentation factor (70 for pro, 80 for euk)
ribosomal RNA and many proteins differ in structure and between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
differing ribosomal RNA is very imp when it comes to treatment of bacterial diseases by targeting something that is different from oour cells
prokaryotic cell wall is...and... usually present...chemically complex (typical bacterial cell wall includes peptidoglycan)
eukaryotic cell wall, when present is... chemically simple
cytosol and inclusions are present in all pro and euk
endospores are present in...and... some pros and absent in all euks
bacterial morphology/shapes include bacillus (oval), coccus (round), and spirillum (spiral)
bacillus example bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
coccus example staphylococcus aureus or MRSA infection
spirochete example treponema pallidum or syphillis
aggregations of cocci can either be streptococci (chain), diplococci (pair) or staphylococci (clump)
streptococci example streptococcus pyrogenes
diplococci (stop at one cell division) example neisseria gonorrhea
staphylococci example staphylococcus aureus
cytosol is also called...and is... cytoplasmic matrix...liquid found inside cells which is complex mixture of substances dissolved in water
in prokayrotes, most...take place in the cytosol chemical reactions of metabolism
cell membrane/cytoplasmic membrane/plasma membrane: like all biological membranes, the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of phospholipid and protein molecules
the phospholipid has a...and a... hydrophobic part...hydrophilic part
prokaryotic membranes lack sterols
bacterial cytoplasmic membrane does diffusion, active transport, energy production and motility
diffusion can either be passive or facilitated diffsuion through a channel protein
energy production involves the electron transport system for bacteria with aerobic and anaerobic respiration (mitochondria)
bacterial cytoplasmic membrane does motility and involves the bases of bacterial flagella residing within cell membrane
diffusion happens through the phospholipid bilayer
facilitated diffusion happens through a nonspecific channel protein
facilitated diffusion through a...leads to...which leads to... permease specific for one chemical...binding of substrate...shape change in channel protein
osmosis is the...through a.. diffusion of water...specific channel protein or through the phospholipid bilayer
example of active transport would be generation of ap roton gradient across membrane for energy production
active transport uses...and the same principle can be used to pump... atp...antibiotic drugs out in some mechanisms of drug resistance
2 major categories based on gram stain gram positive or negative depending on structure of cell wall
pili are also called...and they do not do... fimbriae...movement
pili are hair like structures protruding from the cell envelope
type 1 fimbriae aare...and are used to...which is a... fuzzy..attach to target tissues...virulence factor
virulence factors allow organism to colonize and become pathogenic
type 2 fimbriae are also called...and are present in... sex pilus...only gram negative bacteria
type 2 fimbriae are used for genetic exchange
type 2 fimbriae inject plasmin w/ extra dna to new bacterium
a capsule is a discrete mucoid layer of polysaccharides deposited outside the cell wall of bacteria
sometimes bacterial cells are embedded more...in a...called a.. randomly...polysaccharide matrix...slime layer or biofilm
capsules have several functions including mediating adherence of cells to surfaces (biofilm - dental plaque)and they protect bacterial cells from engulfment by white blood cells (phagocytosis)
many pathogenic bacteria are encapsulated in the slime layer which is a virulence factor
an example of biofilm construction in nature is the formation of...mediated by the... dental plaque...oral bacterium streptococcus mutans
bacteria adhere specifically to the... pellicle of the tooth by means of a protein on the cell surface
the bacteria are able to...into.. cleave sucrose (provided by diet)...glucose plus fructose
fructose is...as an... fermented...energy source for bacterial growth
glucose is...into an...that binds the... polymerized..extracellular dextran polymer...bacteria to the enamel and forms a biofilm some 300-500 cells in thickness
biofilm cements the bacteria to the tooth enamel and becomes the matrix of dental plaque
the dextran slime can be...for use as a... depolymerized to glucose...carbon source
depolymeriing dextran slime results in production of..within the biofilm that... lactic acid...decalcifies the enamel and leads to dental caries or bacterial infection of the tooth
Created by: handrzej